versailles - totalitarian rulers2 copy

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Transcript versailles - totalitarian rulers2 copy

• What were goals of the Treaty of Versailles?
• What issues emerged as the victors dealt with nations and
national groups?
• What were goals of the League of Nations?
The Creating of “NEW EUROPE”
The Treaty of Versailles
Pp 657-661 (Blue Book 526-531)
• List what the Treaty of Versailles did
to Germany. Is it Fair? Which is the
worst one in your opinion why?
• Should the US have ratified this
treaty? Why/Why not?
• How did the map of Europe change from
1914 and 1919? (p RED 644-645 and
659) Blue book p 508/512 and 527
• What were the issues with Poland,
Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, Ottomans,
Russia, minorities in Austria-Hungary, in
Danzig, the Sudeten Germans,
Armenians and Kurds
• Goals of League of Nations?
• How accomplish goals?
• How does mandate process relate to
League’s goals?
• Diagram the structure of the League and its
relation to the World Court
• Using computer explore the Armenian Genocide.
Who is involved?
Where did it take place?
When did it take place?
What is it?
Why did it take place?
• What were goals of the Treaty of Versailles?
• What issues emerged as the victors dealt with nations and
national groups?
• What were goals of the League of Nations?
How did life change in US after WWI?
What were causes of world wide Great Depression
that began in 1929?
What were effects of Great Depression on world?
What was New Deal and how would it change
government in US?
Great Depression
WWI is over
US comes out of war in better shape than other allies
From 1918-1929 US goes through economic boom
US New Role
We helped in the war and was involved in peace process
While economy of Europe was poor US was strong
After WWI Europe had trouble paying of debts
US not want leadership role
Pulled out of League of Nations
We wanted to enjoy prosperity and be left alone
Roaring Twenties
A fast pace life in the US
Era of Pleasure
Many Changes
automobile industry
Commercial airlines
mail first people in the 1930
Movies “Talkies”
Women given the right to vote
Cracks in the perfect world
1. Wages did not keep up with labor = could not buy all the goods
being produced
Profits went to stockholders or were reinvested back into the
company for new machines and new factories
As new machines bought = less workers hired and some were let go
2. Agriculture also suffered. High demand during war. Farmers take
out loans to keep up with demand.
After war demand went down. Farmers overproduce to try and pay
off loans. Lead to lowering farm prices.
3. Economic Nationalism = Protective tariffs to help own countries
High American tariffs made it difficult for countries to sell goods in
our country
This made it hard for them to buy American goods or pay their war
We then lent money to countries help them buy American goods
All this did was lead them to be more in debt
Reparations on Germany
How will Germany pay back money to England and France?
How will England and France pay US back if they do not get
paid reparations?
Causes of the Great Depression
1. Credit which leads to On Margin
2. Overproduction
US buy everything on credit (consumer goods)
In the 1920's people turn to market speculation =
was a risky investment
Buy a stock in hope to sell it for a profit
In the 1920's stock prices rose at an astronomical rate.
No one could see the good times ending!!!
On Margin
Investors borrowed money to buy stocks
Only collateral used was the stock itself
People would only put down 10% the value of the stock
This meant that you would buy $1,000 worth of stock
with only 10% down,
or $100.
When the stock price went up you sell stock and pay off
If stock price fell no way to pay it back and no way for bank
to get any money back
To meet the demand for goods in the 1920's factories
When there was more goods than
demand the prices fell.
October 29,1929 = Black Tuesday
Panic selling of stocks
16 million shares dumped on the market in one day
Prices fell
People try to sell their stocks
No one buys stocks
One week lose 30 billion ($ 377,587,032,777.41)
Crash of 1929
Stocks became worthless
Peoples money vanished
$26 million lost
Banks began to call loans
Loans not paid lead to banks closing
Thousands of banks closed
People that had money in those banks lost
their money
Great Depression
Economies around the world slowed down
30 million workers around the world were unemployed
Germany stopped paying reparations
Allies stopped paying the US
Prices were very low but people did not have enough
money to buy anything
Responses to Great Depression
US continued Economic Nationalism, raise tariffs
even higher and cut off loans to Europe
Germany and Austria tried to form a custom union
but World Court banned it
England tried to lower tariffs within whole empire
France struggled with economy lead to three government
changes in 1933
In Germany the Weimar Republic was dismantled
The US was behind other countries in the area of
social legislation
President Herbert Hoover
believed that "prosperity
was around the
Franklin Delano Roosevelt
1933 elected
New Deal - government gave money for food, shelter, and clothing.
Also set up program of public works.
Changes in the banking and Stock Market
Social Security Act = unemployment and retirement instituted
Minimum wage created and 40 hour work week
Government pay farmers to grow certain crops to help soil
TVA = Tennessee Valley Authority = series of dams to produce cheap
FDIC = Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation
New Deal lead government of the US to be more
involved in the peoples lives than in
time in the history of the US
The only way out of the Great Depression for the
US was when the US mobilized its
industry for WWII!!!!!!!!!!!!
The rise of
Totalitarian Rulers
Italy post WWI
Italy after WWI = BAD
Treaty of Versailles
Rise of Benito Mussolini
school teacher
arrested for vagrancy
editor of socialist newspaper
arrest for pacifist propaganda in 1911
1914 against war
then changed his mind (kicked out of socialist party)
founded Fasci d'Azione Rivoluzionaria (pro war group)
wounded in grenade practice
1919 founded Fasci de Combattimento (political party)
lead to the formation of Fascism
1. Strong Leader
2. Strong nationalism
3. Hatred of democracy
4. Hatred of socialism and communism
5. Use of Symbols
6. Use of Violence
7. Use of propaganda
8. Strong armed forces
9. Control of all aspects of life and work
Why people accept this?
Fascism compare/contrast to communism
(p 679)
Mussolini gains power
first soldiers and upset nationalist
Fascist grow with anti communism
lower class
economy improvement
anti communist
Blackshirts = Thugs
With collapse of world economy
People believed capitialism and democracy run its
New totalitarian ruler to bring order
1921 Mussolini voted into parliament
1922 March on Rome (fear of Communist Revolution)
country out of control
Victor Emmanuel III made Mussolini Premier
March on Rome, 1922
Destroyed Democracy
fascist party rises in power
"IL Duce" 1925
opposition to Mussolini
took over press
disbanded many freedoms = speech, trial, assembly & strike
secret police force = OVRA The Organizzazione per la
Vigilanza e la Repressione dell'Antifascismo ("Organization for
Vigilance and Repression of Anti-Fascism")
head of several parts of government and Fascist party
All teacher swear an oath
newspaper editors chosen by Mussolini himself
creation of Corporatist State = government control all
Things he did to strengthen Italy and his control
1. strengthen army and navy
2. "Win the battle of Motherhood"
3. "Railroads run on time"
4. "Mussolini is always right"
By 1930's three governments in Europe
Democracy, Communism and Fascism
November 1918 Weimar Republic
dominated by Socialist and Jewish citizens
Many Germans hate new republic
signed Treaty of Versailles
unemployment high = 1929 1.3 million
1933 6 million
inflation high =1918 4 German dollar to one dollar
1923 January 17,972 to one
1923 November 4,200,000,000,000
to one
Revolts in Germany
One new Political party was German Workers
One of the first recruits was Adolf Hitler
change named to National Socialist German
Workers Party = Nazi Party
Came up with 25 points of the party
Adolf Hitler
Failed to enter art school
Fought in WWI
Blamed Jews for loss of WWI
Nazi gains support = France and Belgium marched in
to land to settle reparation problem
1923 lead Munich Putsch
spent time in prison
Mein Kampf (my Struggle)
National Socialism
“create living space” = Poland and Russia
Strong government under Hitler
Got out and started politicking
talked about treaty, reparations, loss of land
unemployment ect
Nazi gains more support
Made promises
1. Repeal Treaty of Versailles
2. Build armaments
3. Regain lost land
4. Rebuild German empire(3rd Reich)
5. Protect vs communism
6. Bring back the Aryan Race to supremacy
1930 Nazis increased in popularity
won seats in Parliament = 1928 won 12 ranked 9th
1930 won 107 ranked 2nd
1932 won 230 ranked 1st
1933 Hitler appointed Chancellor by President Paul
Von Hindenberg
Used Stormtroops(Brownshirts) to intimidate
1933 Reichstag set on fire
Hitler given power to deal with "Threat"
Could do things without parliaments OK
1934 Hindenberg died
Hitler combined both offices
Dictatorship in place
one country one people one leader
Nazi Germany
lowered unemployment
1933 = 6 million 1939 = 301,900
Der Fuhrer
Police state = Gestapo
report on each other even children
sent people away
Banned opposition = one political party in Germany
Killed allies = Night of the Long Knives
brownshirts = SA
Took over schools = teach Nazi doctrine
Propaganda = Germans convinced everything good due to
Set up concentration camps
Systematic limitation of Civil Right of Jews
Public humiliation
Star of David
1938 Kristallnacht =Night of Broken Glass
Rearmed in private until 1935 then
went public
1936 = sent troops into Rhineland
Allies do nothing
1936 signed alliance with Italy (ROMEBERLIN AXIS)
you likewise
in the beginning was the Word
• Why did Italy and Germany embrace
totalitarian rule?
• Would they have done it without
Mussolini and Hitler?
Soviet Russian Dictatorship
Civil War
Policy of War Communism
1921 faced economic problems
Lenin = New Economic Policy
allow for private ownership of some businesses
The NEP restored some prosperity to Russia . But to many of us this
prosperity was distasteful...We felt ourselves sinking into the bog,
paralyzed, corrupted... There was
gambling, drunkenness, and all the filth of former times. Classes were
reborn in front of our
very eyes..
Serge was a Bolshevik, remembering the NEP
There wasn’t any food in the country. We were down to a little bread
each. Then suddenly they
started the NEP. Cafes opened. Factories went back into private hands.
It was Capitalism. In my
eyes it was the very thing I had been fighting against...
Most people supported Lenin, other said he was wrong, and many tore
up their party membership
»Nikolai Izatchik, a Bolshevik, remembering the NEP
Economy improved except agriculture
Collective farms
Lenin died in 1924
I am not sure that Comrade Stalin will always use his power properly.
Comrade Trotsky, on the other hand, is distinguished by his outstanding ability.
Lenin's Will (1923).
Competition between Joseph Stalin and Leon Trotsky
a leader of party
believed in socialism in one country first
founder of Red Army
believed in World Wide socialist revolution
Plans of Stalin
1928 ended NEP
Reinstitude Command economy
"We must make good distance in ten years. Either we do it
or we shall be crushed."- Joseph Stalin
Start Five year plan
modern nation
no consumer goods
Forced collectives
2nd Five year plans
heavy industry
less food and consumer goods
Stalin's Russia
1. Police state = NKVD (Peoples Commissariat for
International Affairs)
2. Disestablished religion = Atheism preached
3. "Social Realism"
4. Put power in the Politburo
Stalin controlled Politburo
5. Purges
Soviets want acceptance
Soviets want revolutions around the world
against capitalist
Leads to fear, suspicion and hostility