PreAP 19 World in flames

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Transcript PreAP 19 World in flames

Get out one sheet of paper.
Title for this paper is as follows:
“Factors that induced, stimulated, precipitated, and
instigated the failure of peaceful co-existence in
Europe which ultimately led to the destructive
horrors of armed warfare on the continent.”
Please use slides 1-20 from the PreAP 19 World in
flames powerpoint on my website to write a one
page paper that provides the information necessary
to prove the title above
Chapter 19
A World in Flames 1939-1941
The Rise of Dictators
• The treaty that ended World War I
(Treaty of Versailles) and the economic
depression that followed contributed to
the rise of dictatorships in Europe and
• Italy developed
the first major
dictatorship in
• In 1919 Benito Mussolini
founded Italy’s Fascist Party.
• Fascism was a kind of
aggressive nationalism.
* nation was more important
than the individual
* a nation became great by
expanding its territory and
building its military.
• Facists were anti-Communist.
• Backed by militia known as
• In 1917 the Bolshevik Party, led by
Vladimir Lenin, set up Communist
governments throughout the Russian
• The Russian territories were renamed
the Union of Soviet Socialist
Republics (USSR) in 1922.
• The Communists set up a one-party
• By 1926 Joseph Stalin had
become the new Soviet dictator.
• In 1927 he began a massive effort
to industrialize the country.
• Millions of peasants who resisted
the Communist policies were killed.
• After WWI, political and economic chaos
in Germany led to the rise of new political
• The Nazi Party was nationalistic and antiCommunist.
• Adolf Hitler, a Nazi,
for the unification
Germans under
of all
• He believed certain
Germans were part of a
“master race” destined to rule the world.
• He felt Jews were responsible for many of the
world’s problems.
• In 1933 Hitler was appointed prime minister of
• Storm troopers
intimidated voters
into giving Hitler
dictatorial powers.
• Hard economic times in Japan after WW I
undermined the country’s political system.
• Many Japanese wanted to seize territory to
gain much-needed natural resources.
• In 1931 the Japanese
army, without government
permission, invaded the
resource-rich province of
• The military took control
of Japan.
America Turns to Neutrality
• Why did the U.S. turn to neutrality?
* The rise of dictatorships in Europe & Asia
after WW I
* Refusal of European countries to repay
war debts owed to the U.S.
•The Nye Committee findings that arms
factories made huge profits
All of this caused Americans to support
• Many Americans wanted to avoid international
• Congress passed the Neutrality Act of 1935
making it illegal for Americans to sell arms to
any country at war.
• Congress passed the Neutrality Act
of 1937, which continued the ban of selling
arms to countries at war and required warring
countries to buy nonmilitary supplies from the
United States on a “cash and carry” basis.
• President Franklin D. Roosevelt supported
• Internationalists believe that trade between
nations creates prosperity and helps to prevent
• Japan aligned itself with Germany and Italy,
and these three countries became known as
the Axis Powers.
Mussolini & Hitler
• Hitler claimed the Sudetenland, an area of
Czechoslovakia with a large German-speaking
• Czechs strongly
resisted German
demand for the
• France, the
Soviet Union,
and Britain
threatened to fight Germany if it attacked
• At the Munich Conference on
September 29, 1938, Britain and
France, hoping to prevent another war,
agreed to Hitler’s demands in a policy
known as appeasement.
• In March 1939, Germany sent troops
into Czechoslovakia, bringing the
Czech lands under German control.
Britain and France try to appease Hitler by
“giving away” the Sudetenland to the Nazis
The results of
A Czech woman
is forced to
salute Nazi
soldiers as they
march through
her town
• Hitler demanded the
return of Danzig –Poland’s Baltic Sea
• He also wanted a
highway and railroad
across the Polish
Red areas are those
that Germany had
surrendered in the Treaty
of Versailles
• These demands
convinced the British
and French that
appeasement had
• On August 23, 1939, Germany and the
USSR signed a nonaggression treaty,
with a secret agreement to divide
The War Begins
• On September 1,
1939, Germany and
the USSR invaded
• On September
3, Britain and
France declared
war on Germany;
World War II was
• The Germans
used a blitzkrieg,
or lightning war, to
attack Poland.
• The Polish army
was defeated by
October 5.
• On April 9, 1940, the German army attacked
Norway and Denmark.
• Within a month, Germany overtook both
• After World War I, the French built a line of
concrete bunkers and fortifications called the
Maginot Line along the German border.
• When Hitler decided to attack France, he went
around the Maginot Line by invading the
Netherlands, Belgium, and Luxembourg.
• The French and
British forces
quickly went into
Belgium, becoming
trapped there by
• By June 4, about 338,000
British and French troops had
evacuated Belgium through the
French port of Dunkirk and
across the English Channel,
using ships of all sizes.
• On June 22, 1940,
France surrendered to the
• Germany installed a
puppet government in
France known as Vichy
Britain Remains Defiant
• Hitler thought that Britain would negotiate
peace after France surrendered.
• He did not anticipate the bravery of the
British people and their prime minister,
Winston Churchill.
• On June 4, 1940, Churchill delivered a
defiant speech that rallied the British
people and alerted the United States to
Britain’s plight.
• To invade Britain, Germany had to defeat the
British air force.
• In the Battle of Britain,
the German air force
launched an all-out air
battle to destroy the
British Royal Air Force.
• After German bombers
bombed London, the
British responded by
bombing Berlin, Germany.
• The Royal Air Force was greatly outnumbered
by the Luftwaffe (German Air Force), but the
British had radar stations and were able to
detect incoming German aircraft and direct
British fighters to intercept them.
• Hitler was forced to cancel
the Nazis’ planned invasion
of Great Britain.
• Churchill praised the RAF:
“Never in the field of human
conflict was so much owed
by so many to so few.”
British children Survivors of the
Battle of Britain
Nazi Persecution of the Jews
• The Nazis killed nearly 6 million Jews and
millions of other people during the Holocaust.
• The Hebrew term for the Nazi campaign to
exterminate the Jews before and during World
War II is Shoah.
• The Nazis persecuted anyone who opposed
them, as well as the disabled, Gypsies,
homosexuals, and Slavic peoples.
• The Nazis’ strongest hatred was aimed
at all Jews.
• In September 1935, the Nuremberg Laws took
citizenship away from Jewish Germans and
banned marriage between Jews and other
• German Jews were deprived of many rights that
citizens of Germany had long held.
• By 1936 at least half of Germany’s Jews were
• Anti-Jewish violence
erupted throughout
Germany and Austria
November 9, 1938,
broken glass.”
• Ninety Jews died,
hundreds were badly
injured, thousands of
Jewish businesses were
destroyed, and over 180
synagogues were wrecked.
known as
or “night of
The German
people were
intimidated into
Books written by Jewish
authors or dealing with
Jewish subjects in a
positive way were burned
Jews were ordered to
register with Nazi
officials for
purposes and forced
to wear yellow stars on
their clothing.
Jews were rounded up and force-marched to
trains in which they were packed like cattle.
They were then taken to concentration camps.
Many non-Jews risked their
lives by hiding entire families
of Jews in their homes. The
most famous case was a
young Jewish girl named
Anne Frank who, along with
her family, was hidden for
two years in an attic. The
Nazis eventually found them
and forced them into
concentration camps. Only
her father, Otto, survived the
Holocaust. We have her
story from a diary that she
The Final Solution
• On January 20, 1942, Nazi leaders met at the
Wannsee Conference to decide the “final
solution” of the Jews and other “undesirables.”
• The plan was to round up Jews and other
“undesirables” from Nazi-controlled Europe and
take them to concentration camps – detention
centers where healthy individuals worked as
slave laborers.
• The elderly, the sick, and young children were
sent to extermination camps to be killed in
large gas chambers.
• After World War II began, Nazis built concentration
camps throughout Europe.
• Extermination camps were built in many
concentration camps, mostly in Poland.
• Thousands of people
were killed each day
at these camps.
• In only a few years,
Jewish culture had
been virtually
obliterated by the
Nazis in the lands
they conquered.
Concentration Camp
children who
subjected to
at the hands
of Nazi
Jews were
beaten by
solution” to
what he
called the
was to kill
them all --genocide of
an entire
These are the shoes of Jews killed in just one
of Hitler’s extermination camps.
to wait
in line
to be
killed at
of Nazi
Those who were still alive were shot individually
by the Nazi soldiers.
Eventually there
were too many to
kill (Hitler didn’t
want to “waste”
his precious
ammunition on
the Jews), so he
began to send
them to gas
Their bodies were then burned
in specially built ovens.
These are survivors of the Holocaust who were
liberated by Allied soldiers toward the end
of the war. It was too late for the millions who
were slaughtered at the hands of the Nazis.
FDR Supports England
• Two days after Britain and France declared
war against Germany, President Roosevelt
declared the United States neutral.
• The Neutrality Act of 1939 allowed warring
countries to buy weapons from the United
States as long as they paid cash and carried
the arms away on their own ships.
The Isolationist
• After the German
invasion of France
and the rescue at
Dunkirk, American
public opinion
changed to favor
limited aid to the
• The America First
Committee opposed
any American
intervention or aid to
the Allies.
• President Roosevelt ran for an unprecedented
third term as president in the election of 1940.
• Roosevelt won by a large margin.
Edging Toward War
• President Roosevelt
proposed the LendLease Act, which
stated that the United
States could lend or
lease arms to any
country considered
“vital to the defense of
the United States.”
• Congress passed the
act by a wide margin.
• President Roosevelt developed the
hemispheric defense zone, which declared the
entire western half of the Atlantic as part of the
Western Hemisphere and therefore neutral.
• This allowed Roosevelt to order the U.S. Navy
to patrol the western Atlantic Ocean and reveal
the location of German submarines to the
USS Wichita
operating out
of Norfolk, Va
• In August 1941, President Roosevelt and
Prime Minister Winston Churchill agreed to the
Atlantic Charter.
• This agreement committed the two leaders to
a postwar world of democracy, nonaggression,
free trade, economic advancement, and
freedom of the seas.
• After a German U-boat fired on the American
destroyer Greer, Roosevelt ordered American
ships to follow a “shoot-on-sight” policy toward
German submarines.
• Germans torpedoed
and sank the
American destroyer
Reuben James in
the North Atlantic.
Japan Attacks the United States
• Roosevelt’s goal between August 1939
and December 1941 was to help Britain
and its allies defeat Germany.
• When Britain began moving its warships from
Southeast Asia to the Atlantic, Roosevelt
introduced policies to discourage the
Japanese from attacking the British Empire.
• In July 1940, Congress passed the Export
Control Act, giving Roosevelt the power to
restrict the sale of strategic materials –
materials important for fighting a war – to other
• Roosevelt immediately blocked the sale of
airplane fuel and scrap iron to Japan.
• The Japanese signed an alliance with
Germany and Italy.
• He also sent General MacArthur to
the Philippines to build up American defenses
• The Japanese decided to attack resource-rich
British and Dutch colonies in Southeast Asia,
seize the Philippines, and attack Pearl Harbor.
• Japan attacked Pearl Harbor on December 7,
1941, sinking or damaging 21 ships of the U.S.
Pacific Fleet, killing 2,403 Americans, and
injuring hundreds more.
• The air attack began at 7:48 a.m. (Hawaii time)
and lasted for about 90 minutes.
• The next day, President Roosevelt asked
Congress to declare war on Japan.
December 7,
“A date which
will live in
-- FDR in a
speech asking
to formally
declare war
on Japan.
•Listen to FDR's "Day of #2F787D
• On December 11, 1941, Japan’s allies –
Germany and Italy – declared war on the
United States.
Dorie Miller decorated for valor
at Pearl Harbor