The War in the Pacificx

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Transcript The War in the Pacificx

Do Now
1. What is one thing you learned from our guest
speaker yesterday?
2. Explain one specific way that his personal
experience fits in with something we have
studied or discussed in class? (or you read in
your textbook?)
3. One thing that you were not expecting to
hear from him?
December 7, 1941
The Attack on Pearl Harbor
• The Japanese Empire launches a surprise attack
on the U.S. Naval Fleet stationed in Hawaii.
• In two waves, they sink all eight battleships, three
cruisers, four destroyers, and 188 planes.
• 2,403 Americans are killed. 1,178 are wounded.
• FDR asks for a declaration of war from Congress
and receives it on December 8.
April, 1942
U.S. Surrender of the Philippines
• Bataan Death March-U.S. and Filipino POW’s
marched over 100 miles with little food and
• Those who fell behind were shot, bayoneted, or
beheaded (the “sun treatment”)
• Approximately 10,000 of 70,000 POW’s killed
• 40% of US POW’s die in Japanese captivity, about
1% in German/Italian captivity
• Douglas MacArthur withdraws but vows to
April 18, 1942
The Doolittle Raid
• 16 B-25 Bombers fly over 600 miles under
cover of darkness to bomb Tokyo and crashland in China.
• Out of 80 airmen taking part in the mission,
71 survive.
• Effect-Did not do much physical damage, but
very effective psychologically. The Japanese
military dishonored the Emperor by not
protecting him or the homeland.
June, 1942
The Battle of Midway
• U.S. had broken the JN-25 Japanese Naval Code
• JN-25 was updated but so difficult to use in the
beginning that the Japanese would use the old
and new code together.
• U.S. knew that Pearl Harbor was represented by a
“K” and that “A” was for American territory, “D”
was British, and “R” was Australian.
• So “AK” stood for Pearl Harbor, U.S. territory.
• U.S finds out that the Japanese would launch
their next attack 50 miles northwest of “AF”.
• U.S. thought Midway would be next target,
but were not sure.
• The Navy at Midway was secretly told to
report over the radio that they were suffering
from a water shortage.
• Japanese naval intelligence reports that “AF”
has only enough water to last two weeks.
• Japanese has 72 bombers and 36 Zero fighters
coming, but the U.S. aircraft carriers, Nimitz,
and Midway is ready.
• Japanese arrive at Midway and realize all U.S.
bomber squadrons are missing. They have left
to attack Japanese aircraft carriers.
• U.S. sinks four Japanese aircraft carriers and
322 planes.
• Turning point of war in Pacific
• Was referred to as “a Pearl Harbor in reverse.”
Aug., 1942-Feb., 1943
Battle of Guadalcanal
• Island-hopping to get closer to Japan
• First land offensive against the Japanese
• 19,000 Marines storm the Solomon Islands
(later nicknamed the “Island of Death.”)
• About 1/3 U.S. soldiers suffer casualties (1,800
killed), but it is the first Japanese defeat on
land (24,000 Japanese killed).
October, 1944
Battle of Leyte Gulf
• 178,000 Allied troops with 738 ships launch
offensive in the Philippines.
• Japanese lose 3 battleships, 4 aircraft carriers,
13 cruisers, and 400 planes.
• MacArthur wades on shore to make an
announcement. “People of the Philippines, I
have returned.”
• U.S. soldiers see the first use of kamikaze
February, 1945
Battle of Iwo Jima
• Strategically important…U.S. bombers can
reach Japan from here.
• With 21,000 Japanese troops entrenched in
tunnels and caves, it is considered the most
heavily defended spot on Earth.
• While U.S forces are successful, 6,000 Marines
• Only 200 Japanese survive.
April, 1945
Battle of Okinawa
What is happening in Europe in April 1945?
Japan’s last defensive outpost.
Japan unleashes 1,900 kamikaze attacks.
America again is successful, but it is costly.
Almost 8,000 soldiers are killed.
August 6, 1945
• The United States drops an atomic bomb on
August 9, 1945
• The United States drops another atomic bomb
on Nagasaki.
The Decision to Drop the Bomb
Dropping the bomb on Hiroshima and
Nagasaki was justified….
• The Japanese had shown that they would not
• It was too risky and costly to waste a bomb in a
• Japanese cities were being firebombed anyway.
• It would make the situation with the USSR more
“manageable” after the war.
• It would convince the world of its destructive
power to deter its use
Dropping the bombs on Hiroshima and
Nagasaki was not justified…
• Japan was ready to surrender, but were not
willing to sacrifice their Emperor.
• A demonstration explosion over Tokyo Harbor
would have convinced the Japanese to surrender.
• The bomb was used to justify the $2 billion cost.
• Civilian outnumbered soldiers in Hiroshima about
• It set a horrible precedent, making it acceptable
for nations to use nuclear weapons.
August 15, 1945
VJ Day
Tuskegee Airmen
• In July, 1941, the AAF
began a program to
train AfricanAmericans as military
• Training began at the
famous Tuskegee
Institute founded by
Booker T. Washington.
• April, 1943-Tuskegee
Airmen sent to North
• Fight in Italy as well as
Sicily with distinction.
• Over 15,000 sorties flown,
261 Nazi planes destroyed.
• No bombers lost when
escorted by the airmen.
92nd Infantry
Buffalo Soldiers
• All black regiment
formed in 1866 (one
year after Civil War).
• Native Americans
coined the term out of
respect for a worthy
• Buffalo Soldiers fight
Hitler’s best in Italy for
68 straight days.
• 3,000 soldiers killed or
• Buffalo soldiers take
24,000 prisoners.
442nd Combat Regimental Unit - The Nisei
• All Nisei unit, known
for its bravery and
• Unit motto:
“Go for Broke”.
• Most decorated
battalion in military
100th Battalion
The Purple Heart Battalion
• Went from 1,432 men to
521 in one year, earning
their nickname.
• Joined up with the 442nd
and helped to rescue the
“Lost Battalion”.
• 800 American men died in
the rescue operation.
Navajo Code Talkers
• American military used
Choctaw Indians in WWI.
• Secret codes become very
complex to avoid detection
by enemy.
• Navajo language
considered to be good
code due to its isolation
and complexity.
Rules for the Code
1. Words logically connect to
a military term.
EX. Besh-lo=iron fish=?
Good job class!!!
2. Be creative, short, and easy
to memorize.
3. Have a distinct sound so it
could be heard through
radio static.
• Code Talkers
participated at
Guadacanal, Iwo Jima,
and Okinawa.
• The Code was never