world war ii - the world of World History!

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Transcript world war ii - the world of World History!

Road to War
• Aggressive nations
– Japan invades Manchuria in 1931
• The League of Nations does nothing
– Japan then invades China
• Millions of Chinese will die, Rape of Nanjing
– Italy in 1935 invades Ethiopia
• The Ethiopian leader appealed to the League of
Nations, which once again did nothing
– Italy also takes over Albania
• Hitler began to ignore and violate the terms of the
Treaty of Versailles
– Once in power, Hitler began to secretly rebuild the
Germany army
– A few years later he sent troops into the Rhineland,
Germany territory that bordered France
• The Treaty of Versailles made this area a
demilitarized zone
• The French and British complained, but took no
– Realizing that the other Europeans powers wouldn’t
risk war to stop him, Hitler set his plans for an empire
into motion
• Lebensraum = living space for the German people
• Germany begins to acquire territory
– First step in Hitler’s plan was to annex Austria
• German troops marched into Austria in 1938
without opposition and took over Austria, called
the Anschluss
– Next Hitler turned to Czechoslovakia, demanding the
Sudetenland, a region with a large German
• The French and British met with Hitler at the
Munich Conference in 1938 to decide the fate of
the Sudetenland
• Hitler demanded it or else war
• France and Britain told Czechoslovakia to give
Germany the Sudetenland - appeasement
• Hitler got what he wanted without any fighting
and British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain
returned home claiming to have achieved “peace
in our time”
– Six months later Hitler violates the Munich
agreement and takes over the rest of Czechoslovakia
– France and Great Britain realized that Hitler would
never be satisfied and decided they would have to
make a stand
• Hitler next began demanding Poland or else
• France and Great Britain stated they would fight to
protect Poland
• New alliances
– Rome-Berlin Axis = between Italy and Germany
– Anti-Comintern Pact = between Germany and Japan to
oppose the spread of communism
– Nazi-Soviet Nonaggression Pact = between Germany and
the Soviet Union
• Stalin first tried to make an alliance with the French
and British, but they refused
• Hitler made this agreement because he was trying to
prevent a two front war
– Had every intention of invading Russia, wanted the
land for the German people and to turn the Soviets
into slaves or kill them, especially the communists
• Stalin knew Hitler would eventually betray the pact
and invade, needed time to rebuild the Soviet army
World War II Begins
• German Invasion of Poland – Sept. 1, 1939
– Britain and France declare war on Sept. 3
– The Germans use blitzkrieg against the Poles who are
still using horses
– The Soviet Union invades Poland from the other side
• Hitler and Stalin had agreed to divide Poland
– It takes only three weeks to crush Polish resistance
• Blitzkrieg “lightning war”
– Emphasized speed – it is quick and devastating
– The Luftwaffe (German air force) leads the way,
bombing and damaging defenses
– The planes are followed by fast-moving tanks and
artillery, then soldiers who finished off any resistance
• The two opposing sides
– Axis Powers = Italy, Japan, and Germany
– Allied Powers = France and Great Britain (will be
joined later by other nations)
• After a winter spent planning, Hitler was ready to begin
his assault on western Europe
– On April 9, 1940, German forces invaded both
Denmark and Norway
– Hitler’s next focus was to attack and conquer France
• France feels safe behind the Maginot Line, a
concrete fortress built along the French-German
–The best soldiers are stationed there,
concentrating on defense
• Belgium refuses to allow British and French troops
into the country to set up defenses
• Hitler’s assault on France begins on May 10, 1940 when
he launches three separate attacks
– Invades the Netherlands and Belgium – two countries
that lay in between France and Germany
– The Allies come too late to save Belgium, which
surrenders on May 28
– At the same time Nazi forces blitzkrieg at the
Ardennes Woods, where the French least expect it
• It is a dense forest region along the border
between France and Belgium
• The French believe it impossible for an army to get
• The Germans get through in a couple of days and
face inexperienced French troops
– In five days the road to Paris is open
• Paris declares itself an open city to avoid being
• Captured on June 14th as Nazis make a victorious
march through the Arc de Triumph
– Italy invades France on June 10th and declares war on
Britain as well
• French lose 8 soldiers to Italy’s 5,000
• Evacuation at Dunkirk
– German tanks and troops have trapped hundreds of
thousands of Allied troops who retreated to the
coastal city of Dunkirk
• Almost the entire British army is in France
– Hitler halts the march into France because of losses,
this gives the Allies time to get away
– Between May 26th and June 4th, 800 boats from
Britain, ranging from warships to fishing boats,
evacuate 340,000 soldiers from France, including
over 100,000 French soldiers
• Soldiers run into the water and swim to ships
while Allied airplanes hold off the Luftwaffe
–235 ships sunk and 68,000 soldiers killed
• Leave all weapons and tanks behind
Fall of France
• France surrenders on June 21st
• Harsh terms, Hitler wants to humiliate France, sign a
peace treaty at the Versailles palace
– North France given to Germany and southeastern
France goes to Italy
– The rest of southern France gets to remain
independent, but must be loyal to Germany and
cooperate with Hitler, called Vichy France
– Army reduced to 100,000 men and no more navy
• French ships are to go to Germany
• The British steal whatever French boats they
can or sink them from falling into Nazi hands
– Must pay for war and German occupation – way
more money than Germany had to pay after WWI
• Some French leaders, including General Charles de
Gaulle, escape to Britain
– They will organize French resistance and work
with the Allied powers
• Britain is now all alone
– “The Battle of France is over. I expect that the
Battle of Britain is about to begin.”
- Winston Churchill
Battle of Britain
“Where Napoleon failed, I shall succeed. I shall
land on the shores of Britain.” - Hitler
• Lasted from August 1940 – May 1941
– The British were now being led by Winston Churchill
– Hitler’s plan was to destroy the British Royal Air
Force (RAF) to make it possible to invade Britain
– Needs to destroy the RAF before ships can safely land
troops on British soil
• In WWII, planes sink ships
– Would be mostly an air battle
• The Luftwaffe attacks British ports and shipping
– The Luftwaffe also attacks RAF airfields and factories
• British inflict heavy losses on the Germans
• Have something the Germans don’t: radar
– Bomb London in September
• British repay by bombing Berlin
– Lend-Lease Act
• Britain can no longer pay for the military
equipment it needs due to the war
• The U.S. “leases” Britain the military aid it needs
and under the program, the weapons would be
returned at the end of the war
• London Blitz
– More than 70 attacks against the city, ends in May
– At one point London is bombed for 57 consecutive
• The goal is to terrorize the British people and
cause them to lose their will to fight
• 1300 Londoners killed in one week
– Thousands of civilians are killed and large parts of
London and other cities are destroyed
• Hitler calls off the operation, even though Britain was
– Too many losses: Luftwaffe lost 1400 planes to RAF’s
– The RAF shot down German planes faster than
German factories could build them
• Britain survives: “Never in the field of human
conflict was so much owed by so many to so
few.” - Churchill
Invasion of the Soviet Union
• Operation Barbarossa – German invasion of the
Soviet Union – June 22nd, 1941
– Hitler hates communism and views the Russian
people as just a step above Jews
• Has no respect for the Russian army
• Orders the execution of Russians wearing the
Communist insignia
– Attacks with 3 million soldiers and at first the
German blitzkrieg is highly effective
• German troops and tanks race across the Soviet
• The Soviet army has lots of soldiers, but they are
poorly trained and equipped
– Within six weeks one German army group is 220
miles from Moscow
• Expect to win before winter arrives
• By winter the Germans are deep into Soviet
territory, but have not captured Moscow or
– As winter sets in, German progress slows and then
• Were unprepared for the Russian winter
• The Germans commit horrible atrocities against the
Russian people: murder, torture, cities starved or
completely wiped out
– The Russians knew this would be a fight to the death
and they fought with a sense of desperation
Pearl Harbor – Dec. 7, 1941
• Why the Japanese attack
– Island nation – need resources and raw materials, so
they have an expanding empire
– Feel provoked by the U.S.
• The U.S. has placed embargoes on resources, such
as oil, and has frozen Japanese bank accounts
• Other defensive measures due to the Japanese
invasion of China
• Why Pearl Harbor
– Need a quick win
– Center for the U.S. Pacific Fleet
– Destroy fleet, take colonies, and sue for peace
• The attack
– Was a two prong attack
• Planes bombed airfields and ships at Pearl Harbor
in three different waves
– Lasted just under two hours
• 200 aircraft destroyed all 8 battleships were either
damaged or sunk in the harbor
– Casualties
• 2,403 dead and 1,100 wounded
• 1,177 men die aboard the U.S.S. Arizona
– At the same time the Japanese attack U.S. colonies of
Wake Island and the Philippines
• The Philippines fall and General Douglas
MacArthur leaves with a promise to returne
• Bataan Death March
–70,000 prisoners march towards a distant
prisoner camp
–Thousands die due to lack of food, water, and
violence from their Japanese captors
–Many more will die at the prisoner camp
– They also attack Hong Kong, Thailand, Burma,
Malaya, Guam, and French Indochina
• Why fails
– Didn’t eliminate the fuel tanks or other ships (didn’t
launch the third wave)
– All aircraft carriers not in port – they were sent out to
sea a week before
• Aircraft carriers are crucial to battles at sea since
they are able to launch planes
– U.S. reaction
• U.S. Congress declares war on Japan on Dec. 8
• Three days later Germany and Italy declare war on
the U.S.
• The U.S. and the Soviet Union are now part of the
Allied Powers
• Revenge – Doolittle’s raiders bomb Japanese cities
– Bring war home to the Japanese
War in the Pacific
• The Japanese start off with an advantage as the U.S.
works to overcome the damage from Pearl Harbor
• Battle of Coral Sea – May 1942
– Japanese and Americans meet in battle off the coast
of Australia as the Japanese were getting ready to
invade British-controlled New Guinea
– Both sides lose an aircraft carrier, which hurt the
Americans more
• Battle of Midway Island – Turning Point *
– June 1942 – Japanese want to capture this American
military base
• Japan wants to lure the Americans into battle and
finish what they started at Pearl Harbor by
destroying their fleet
– The U.S. had broken the secret Japanese code and
knew of the attack – U.S. ready and waiting
• They destroy four aircraft carriers in five minutes,
only lose one of their own
– The Americans now have the advantage
• Island-hopping = take islands that are not as well
defended and cut off supply lines to Japanese
– Bypass strongholds and capture weaker targets,
which are then used as bases for the next attack
– Will “hop” from one island to another as they
advance towards Japan
• Battle of Guadalcanal – summer 1942
– Japanese are building an airstrip there
– Brutal series of battles that lasts for six months
– Thousands of Japanese die or kill themselves to avoid
• women and children jump off cliffs, soldiers carry
out old samurai traditions, suicide charges
• Tarawa
– It takes the Americans three days to capture the 8
square mile island
– 17 out of 5,000 Japanese survive
– 3,000 American casualties
• From 1942 to 1944 the Allies capture the Solomon,
Gilbert, Marshall, Caroline, and Mariana islands
• MacArthur returns to the Philippines in fall of
– Battle of Leyte – largest naval battle ever fought
• First major use of a new Japanese weapon, the
kamikaze attack
• Kamikazes = Japanese pilots who load their planes
with explosives and deliberately crash into Allied
ships, sacrificing their own lives
• Battle ends in victory for the U.S.
– America recaptures the Philippines
• Iwo Jima – Feb. 1945
– Want to capture the island to make the regular
bombing raids on Japan easier for U.S. pilots
– The Japanese decide to make the Americans think
twice about invading Japan
• Takes 25 days to capture the five mile island
• Approximately 7,000 Americans dead and 20,000
– Out of 21,000 Japanese, only 216 surrender
• Fought to the death
– Raising the flag
• Okinawa
– Many casualties, war of attrition
• 82 days of combat
• Kamikazes sank or damaged 245 ships
• U.S. casualties = 75,000, with 12,000 dead
• Approx. 120,000 Japanese killed, along with
150,000 Okinawan civilians
• Now at Japan’s doorstep
War in Africa
• Fighting begins in Africa in 1940 when Italian forces
based in Libya attacked British-controlled Egypt
– Italy wants an African empire
– The British eliminate the Italian threat and even
invade Libya – the Italians were now on the
• Feb. 1941 – 30,000 British soldiers capture
130,000 Italian prisoners, gain 500 miles
• Only lost 500 men and Ethiopia is freed
• Hitler steps in and sends the Desert Fox
– The new German and Italian force was called the
Afrika Korps and was led by General Erwin Rommel
• He pushes the British out of Libya and back into
• Rommel and the British go back and forth
– The Afrika Korps lacks supplies – Rommel is
outnumbered and has less fire power
Allied Invasions
• Allied Invasion of Africa – known as Operation Torch
– Nov. 1942 – three amphibious landings in the French colonies
of Algeria, Tunisia, and Morocco
• Led by American general Dwight Eisenhower
• Landed with 107,000 Allied troops and the Vichy-controlled
colonies soon joined
• As a result, Germany occupies all of France
– Rommel is in trouble, has Allied forces to the east and west
• Rommel goes to Berlin to plead for more troops and
– May 1943 the Afrika Korps surrenders and the war in Africa is
• 250,000 Axis soldiers taken prisoner and the Allies control
all of North Africa
• Allied Invasion of Italy - known as Operation
Husky (June 1943)
– The Italians remove Mussolini from power
• Italy leaves the war in September
– The Allies next invade mainland Italy
• Germany sends Rommel to defend northern Italy
• German resistance slows the Allies
• They reach Rome by May 1944
• Don’t gain total control of Italy until five days
before Germany surrenders
Battle of the Atlantic and Berlin
• Battle of the Atlantic
– Germany relied once again on U-boats since they
couldn’t match the battleships of Great Britain
• The German U-boat fleet consisted of 400 subs
• They fought in wolf packs for protection
• Sank 2,452 merchant ships and 174 warships at a
cost of thousands of lives and millions of dollars
– Eventually the Allies won control of the Atlantic
• Better-equipped convoys that hunted and
destroyed the U-boats
• Allies had broken the German code, knew the
location of the U-boats
• Battle of Berlin
– November 1943 to spring 1944
• Allies bomb Berlin and other cities
• Also bomb railways and infrastructure in France
Tehran Conference
• Nov. 1943 – meeting of the Allied Powers
– Main issue was the plan to launch the cross-channel
– Decide to create the United Nations to replace the
failed League of Nations
• Would be dominated by Britain, U.S., the Soviet
Union, and France
Invasion of France
• American generals Eisenhower and Marshall are
put in charge
– Assemble and train troops, also develop specialized
equipment to transport troops and tanks across the
• Hitler doesn’t know where the attack will happen,
sends Rommel to defend the coast of several
• Rommel builds the Atlantic Wall
• D-Day June 6, 1944
– Allied forces invade France, known as Operation
– 150,000 troops land on the beaches of Normandy
and force their way through German defenses
– High amount of casualties, but D-Day was a huge
• With the beaches secured, more Allied troops sent in
– 1 million soldiers in France by the end of June
– The Allies quickly reconquered most of France and
Paris is freed in August
Battle of the Bulge
• Dec. 1944 – the Germans launch a massive
counterattack in Belgium
– The Germans advance, creating a bulge in the Allied
battle lines
– By Jan. 1945 the Allies regain the land and crush the
German offensive
• Within two months the Allied forces had crossed the
Rhine River into Germany and were racing towards
Allied Invasions
Who does Hitler
send to defend
War on the Eastern Front
• Siege of Leningrad
– Germans fail to capture the city, so Hitler orders a
siege, or military blockade
• Designed to force the city to surrender
– Winter of 1941-1942 people starved to death at a
rate of 3,000-4,000 a day
• As many as one million will eventually die in the
– The Soviets end the siege in early 1944 after 900 days
• Spring of 1942 German forces renewed their attacks on
the Soviet Union
– Fought well at first and by August looked ready to
capture the city of Stalingrad
• One of the largest in the nation and its factories
produced military equipment vital for the Soviet
war effort
• Battle of Stalingrad – Aug. 1942
– One of the most brutal battles of the war
– The Luftwaffe and artillery bomb the city into rubble
• German troops then go in to wipe out the
remaining Soviet defenders
• Vicious house-to-house fighting ensues
• Tens of thousands die on each side
– Soviets manage to hold off the German attack by the
fall of 1942 and organize a counterattack
• A Soviet force breaks through and surrounds the
Germans, around 250,000 men
• The Germans could escape the trap by retreating,
but Hitler won’t allow it
– By Jan. 1943 the Germans are out of ammunition,
food, and medicine, but Hitler tells them that
surrender is forbidden
• 90,000 Germans that are left surrender shortly
after, making Hitler mad
• Most of them will die in Soviet camps
– This was the first major defeat of Hitler’s armies
– Turning point for the war on the Eastern Front
• June 1944 – the massive Soviet offensive against the
• Pushes the Germans out of Russia and into central
• Leads to another 800,000 German casualties
– July the Soviets capture Poland
– Captures Romania and Bulgaria in Sept. 1944
– Captures Hungary at the end of 1944
– Vienna captured in April 1945
• By January 1945 the Germans were within 40
miles of Berlin
Yalta Conference
• Meeting of the Allied Powers
– Purpose was to discuss the final strategy for defeating
Germany and Japan
• Division of Germany and Berlin into occupation
– UN Security council featuring Britain, U.S., Soviet
Union, France, and China
• Would have more power than other member nations
Victory in Europe
• The race to Berlin is on between the Soviets and the
other Allies (Americans, British, and French)
– The Soviets win
• Take 200,000 casualties to gain the last 39 miles
– Half a million Soviets surround Berlin in late August
• Hitler commits suicide on May 2 and Berlin
surrenders the same day
• On May 7th Germany surrenders
– May 8th is proclaimed V-E Day = Victory in Europe
World War II Conferences
T = Tehran Conference
Y = Yalta Conference
Stalin promises to declare war on Japan
Creates the United Nations
Final strategy for defeating Germany and Japan
Security Council that includes France and China
Plan the cross-channel invasion
Division of Germany into four zones
Dropping of the Atomic Bomb
• The Manhattan Project
– Scientists create the atomic bomb
• Many of the scientists are European Jews who
– The principal motivation for this project was the fear
that the Germans would develop the bomb first
– Tested the bomb successfully in New Mexico in July
• President Roosevelt dies, his Vice-President Truman
takes over and orders the dropping of the bomb
• Reasons for dropping the bomb
– “An Okinawa from one end of Japan to the other”
– Save American lives – est. it would cost 1 million
killed soldiers
– Save Japanese lives
– Save time and money
– People tired of the war
• The Allies issue a demand for Japan’s surrender on July
26 – Japan doesn’t respond
• Little Boy falls on Hiroshima
– Aug. 6th, the Enola Gay drops the atomic bomb on the
city of Hiroshima
• 80,000 die instantly, 35,000 injured
• 2/3 of the buildings are destroyed
• Over the years it is believed that up to 200,00 died
– At ground zero
• 7,000 degrees fahrenheit
• Wind 980 m.p.h.
– The Japanese still do not surrender
• Fat Man dropped on Nagasaki – August 9th
– Between 40,000 to 75,000 die
• The Japanese agree to unconditional surrender
on August 14th
– August 15th is known as V-J Day = Victory Over Japan
– Huge number of casualties inflicted by just two
planes dropping only two bombs
The Internment
• Removal of Japanese from the American west
coast to internment camps
– Fear of sabotage and spies
– 110,000 interned, 2/3 are American born
– They had to leave their homes and businesses, most
lose everything
• Most of the camps are located in the desert
– Harsh climate, surrounded by fences and guards
The Holocaust
• Holocaust = the mass murder of the Jews by
• Why were the Jews hated?
– Hitler and many German people blamed the Jews for
Germany’s problems
• The Jewish people were blamed for Germany’s
loss in World War I
– Racial superiority of the German master race
• Hitler is obsessed – diverts the war effort to destroy the
– He is fighting two wars: one in Europe and one
against the Jews
• First isolate and dehumanize
– Boycott of businesses, some violence, property and
rights taken away
• Laws aimed at excluding Jews from mainstream
German life
– Nuremberg Racial Laws (1935)
• Created a separate legal status for German Jews
• Took away their citizenship and many civil and
property rights
– Night of Broken Glass (Nov. 1938)
• Known as Kristallnacht – refers to anti-Jewish riots
across Germany and Austria
• Jews were attacked and windows and store fronts
• Thousands of Jewish buildings and businesses
destroyed and about 100 Jews were killed
– Hitler issues the “Night and Fog” decree
• Authorized the arrest of anyone endangering
German security
• Those who were seized were to “vanish without a
trace into the night and fog”
• The Final Solution
– Hitler and his advisors come up with the final
solution to the Jewish question = kill the Jews
– First removed the Jews into ghettos = confined areas
within a city
• Starved, disease spreads, thousands die
• Guards shot Jews trying to escape
– From the ghettos Jews were sent to concentration
• Long, crowded train ride in cattle cars – many die
• Concentration Camps
– At first special Nazi squads went from village to
village carrying out mass executions of Jews
• These mobile killing units were too slow, so Hitler
established the concentration camps as a more
efficient way of getting rid of the Jews
– The Jews arrive, families are separated, and then the
selection process begins
• Separated into strong and weak, slave labor or
– Gas chambers killed thousands every day and
furnaces were used to get rid of the dead bodies
– The ones who escaped the gas chambers worked as
slave laborers and endured much hunger
– Some were subjected to cruel medical experiments
• Victims
– 6 million Jewish people perish in the Holocaust
• 2 out of every 3 in Europe – there were 9 million
Jews in Europe when Hitler took power
– Other groups at the concentration camps that the
Nazis viewed as inferior:
• Gypsies, homosexuals, Slavs, Poles, people with
disabilities, Jehovah’s Witnesses, and other
political enemies
• Another 6 million from these groups died
Post War
• Six years of fighting led to millions of lives lost, millions
more injured, horrific property damage, and economies
were on the verge of collapse
• Peace treaty
– The Allies wanted no territorial or financial gains, just
– Germany was divided into four occupation zones
–The Soviet Union received 1/3, the French, British,
and U.S. divided up the rest
–Berlin, which was in Soviet-held territory, was also
–Nuremberg trials – couple hundred Nazi officials
put on trial, some were executed
– Japan was also placed under Allied occupation for
several years
• Had to adopt a new constitution that forbid it to
wage wars
• The United States and the Soviet Union emerge as world
powers and leaders
– Britain won the war, but at great cost
• Economy nearly destroyed, will begin to dismantle
their empire because they can no longer afford to
keep it
– France makes a successful recovery, but will never
again regain its status as a major world power
• Two months after the war in Europe ends, a new conflict
called the Cold War begins, once again dividing Europe