Download Report

Transcript MODER N EUROPE 1300

•1300’s-1600’s: Revitalization of
Greek/Roman arts
•Machiavelli’s The Prince: Guideline
for rulers “It is better to feared than
•Da Vinci and Michelangelo became
influential artists
•Shakespeare wrote plays/poems
that are still popular
•Printing Press: 1455, Johann
Gutenberg created the printing press
using movable type
•Motives = Cheaper trade routes,
Wealth, Spread Christianity
•In late 15th century, Portuguese
explorers Dias and Vasco de Gama
sailed around Africa to start Asian
•Exploration led to eventual
colonization resulting in disease to
natives, exploitation of land, wars
between Europeans
•Joint-Stock Companies: Investors
bought stock in traders banking on a
large return 122
•Many believed Roman Catholic Church
was getting too large and powerful
•Indulgence: Pardon of sin by the Church
that were being sold
•Martin Luther: In 1517, Luther, upset at
the Church, nailed a list of questions called
the 95 theses on the door of a German
•Luther continued to challenge the Church
by saying that the Bible had ultimate
authority over the Church
•Predestination: Popular idea proposed by
John Calvin that God had determined one’s
fate prior to birth
•Monarchs began regaining power from feudal
lords around the 1500-1700’s in France, Spain
and Prussia
•Absolute Monarch: Ruler with total and
complete authority in gov. and over the lives of
the people
•Divine Right: Ruler’s authority came from God
as they were chosen to rule
•The Sun King (Louis XIV): French ruler from
1643-1715 who expanded borders and
promoted trade for his lavish lifestyle
•Magna Carta: (1215) English nobles forced
King John to sign this charter that subjected
him to the law
•Parliament: Enacted after Magna Carta that
created a House of Lords and Commons to
regulate power
•Scientific Method: Step by step approach
that emphasized experimentation and
•Copernicus: Polish mathematician who
used math to prove the Earth revolved
around the sun
•Galileo: Italian scientist who perfected the
telescope and was put on the trial by the
Catholic Church for challenging their
•Newton: English scientist who invented
calculus and discovered the idea of gravity
through the use of calculus
•In the 1700’s, this movement emphasized
the use of reason and logic
•Natural Rights: Belief that all humans have
the right to life, liberty, and prosperity and
that there was a contract between the ruler
and the ruled
•Locke = Natural Rights
•Voltaire =Freedom of speech/religion
•Montesquieu = Separation of powers
•Rousseau: All men are created equal
•American revolution was influenced by
Enlightenment philosophers
•France was split into 3 classes: clergy,
nobles, and commoners (only ones taxed)
•Robespierre: In 1793, he helped unleash
the Reign of Terror leading to up to 40,000
execution by guillotine including Louis XVI
•Napoleon: Gained control of France in
1799 and became “Emperor”
•Napoleonic Code: Kept reforms from
•Conquered almost all of Europe but was
stopped and exiled by European leaders
•1750-1850 Britain led the way and from
1850-1914 Western Europe and US
caught up
•Farmers began to merge land, better
technology was used, better health
•Factory System: Workers and machines
working together to manufacture goods
•Assembly Line: Complex jobs were
broken down into small tasks performed
by individuals
•Inventions like the iron plow, steam
engine, Bessemer process, electricity,
• =Led to more women working,
provided more jobs, changed class
• = Led to pollution, disease, poor
working conditions, and imperialism
New Ideas emerged like…
•Franchise: right to vote
•Socialism: Did not like Capitalism
and wanted government control of
•Marxism: Karl Marx’s “Communist
Manifesto” predicted a worker’s
• (Strong sense of pride in one’s
nation) rose in Europe after
•Italy unified in 1870 and joined
the colonial race
•Germany unified in 1871 after
Otto von Bismarck won the
Franco-Prussian War
•M ilitarism: Better weapons
•A lliances: Complex alliances
•I mperialism: Race for colonies
•N ationalism: Pride/Self-rule
•Austro-Hungarian Archduke Franz
Ferdinand was assassinated sparking WWI
•Central Powers: Germany, AustriaHungary, Ottoman Empire
•Triple Entente: Britain, France, Russia (US)
•First Modern War: Tanks, Planes,
Automobiles, Submarines, Machine Gun
Poison Gas, Trench Warfare
•Treaty of Versailles: Central Powers
formally surrender in June of 1919 leading
to punishment of Germany
•Treaty of Versailles left Germans poor and
•Fascism: Political philosophy of there
being a superior race/people with a
•Fascism began popping up in Germany,
Spain, Italy, and Japan
•Hitler emerged and took over power in
Germany and then took the Sudetenland
and annexed Austria
•Appeasement: Foreign policy adopted by
Britain and other allies that tried to avoid
war at all costs
•Sept. 1, 1939: Hitler invades Poland sparking
•Blitzkrieg: “Lightning War” enacted by the
Germans meaning quick offensives
•Allies: Britain, France, USSR, USA
•Axis: Germany, Italy, Japan
•D-Day: (June 6, 1944) First major Allied land
offensive to recapture German occupied France
•Battle of Stalingrad: Defeat of invading German
troops leading to the Soviet counter-offensive
and eventual German defeat
•VE Day: May 8, 1945