Allies Turn the Tide

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Transcript Allies Turn the Tide

WWII Lecture 3
Allies Turn the Tide
You will learn:
Total war
Rosie the Riveter
Dwight D. Eisenhower
Yalta Conference
Focus Questions
1. How did the Allies mobilize all of their
resources for the war effort?
2. How did the Allies push back the Axis on
four fronts?
3. What agreements did the Big Three make
at the Conference at Yalta?
Government Power Increases
• The U. S and G.B. had to direct economic
output for the war effort.
• to stop producing cars, radios
– start making airplanes , tanks.
• Gov’ts rationed amounts of food and
• $$$ was raised through war bonds
• Even during war, democratic nations
limited rights
• Press was censored
• Propaganda was used to win popular
Women help the war
• Many women went to work
• Rosie the Riveter
– symbolized women going to work
– planes, tanks and ships
– nurses
• Soviet Lily Litvak shot down 12 Germans
before getting killed
Japanese set back
Battle of Coral Sea- first major Japanese loss
Lasted 5 days in May 1942
First time enemy ships never saw each other
Battle of Midway- June 1942 another U.S. win
Americans destroyed 4 Japanese carriers
After Midway Japan could not launch anymore
offensive attacks
Big Three
• By 1942 the “Big Three” Roosevelt,
Churchill and Stalin
• Agreed to finish the war in Europe before
ending the war in the Pacific
• Allies did not trust each other from the
• FDR and Churchill afraid Stalin wanted to
dominate Europe.
• No one wanted to risk the break in the
• Conference in Tehran, Iran 1943
• FDR and Churchill agreed to let the
borders in the Nazi-Soviet Pact stand after
the war
• This was against the wishes of Poland
• Stalin wanted FDR and Churchill to open
up the war on the Western front
• They said they didn’t have the resources
• Stalin saw this as them trying to weaken
the USSR.
• Who trusts whom in this alliance?
Victory in Africa
• Rommel “Desert Fox”
commanded the German
troops in Africa
• 1942 Allies drove his
army from Libya to
• Dwight D. Eisenhower
joined Britain and
attacked Rommel’s army
in Tunisia.
• Rommel surrendered in
May 1943
• Allies crossed into Italy
• July 1943 British and American forces
landed on Sicily and then southern Italy
• After 18 months, Allies suffered heavy
losses, but weakend the Axis
The Italian Campaign
[“Operation Torch”] :
Europe’s “Soft Underbelly”
Allies plan assault on
weakest Axis area North Africa - Nov.
1942-May 1943
George S. Patton
leads American
Germans trapped in
Tunisia - surrender
over 275,000 troops.
The Battle for Sicily:
June, 1943
George S. Patton
Allies attack Sicily
• Hitler send German troops to defend Italy.
• With a victory in N. African the Allies
invade Italy Operation “Blood and Guts”
• Italy loses faith in Mussolini, and replace
him, and then negotiated peace sept 9,
• Mussolini was lynched by his own people
The Allies Liberate Rome:
June 5, 1944
The Struggle on the Eastern
Lightning attack
3 million soldiers
Scorched Earth
Stalin asks the allies for three things
1. Massive aid
2. Recognition of his territorial demands in
Eastern Europe
• 3. Establishment of a second warfront in
Western Europe
Operation Barbarossa:
June 22, 1941
 3,000,000 German soldiers.
 3,400 tanks.
Eastern Front
• Operation Barbarossa: to take over the
Soviet Union for it’s Natural Resources
• Germans Army sends 3 million soldiers in
the Soviet Union using the Blitzkrieg.
• The Soviets use Scorched Earth: killing
and burning their own land to leave
nothing for the Nazi’s
• Russian Winter
• 1942 Hitler launched an attack on the
USSR for the oil fields
• German forces only got as far as
• Hitler wanted Stalin’s namesake city
• This was the costliest battle in terms of
• Jan 1943 Germans, tired ,starved and out
of ammunition surrendered.
Battle of Stalingrad:
Winter of 1942-1943
German Army
Russian Army
1,011,500 men
1,000,500 men
10,290 artillery guns
13,541 artillery guns
675 tanks
894 tanks
1,216 planes
1,115 planes
Battle of Stalingrad
• Germans advance to fast
• Coldest winter in 40 years
• Germans cannot get supplies – Germans
soldiers begin to Starve
• The Russians stop the Germans in
Stalingrad and begin to push the Nazi’s
• June 6, 1944 D-Day or invasion of France
• Lead by Eisenhower
• They stormed the beach and took it
Eisenhower speaks to troops
D Day
Operation Overlord
Three conditions
1. Supplies
2. Secrecy
3. Clear weather
General Eisenhower
June 6, 1944
• Within 24 hours 120,000, troops landed on
the beaches of Normandy
• Within three weeks 800,000 troops joined
the allies in France
• German soldiers retreat – the allied
soldiers liberate France in august of 1944
Allies Advance
• 2 years Allies bombed Germany
• Crippled Germany’s industries
• After freeing France Allies marched toward
• Took Belgium in December
• Battled of the Bulge lasted more than a month
• Many losses
• Ultimately Germans lost and could not break
• Their last great battle
• Battle of the Bulge: In December 1944, Germany
launched a counterattack in Belgium and Luxembourg.
They pushed back the U.S. First Army, forming a
bulge in the Allied Line. The resulting clash came to
be known as the Battle of the Bulge.
• The Battle of the Bulge was the largest battle in
Western Europe during World War II and the largest
battle ever fought by the United States Army. In the
end the casualties were staggering on both sides, and
most Nazi leaders realized that the war was lost.
• In March 1945, American ground forces crossed the
Rhine River and moved toward the German capital of
Berlin from the west.
• Soviet troops continued to fight their way to Berlin from
the east. This fighting resulted in the deaths of some
11 million Soviet and 3 million German soldiers—more
than two thirds of the soldiers killed in the entire war.
The Soviets finally reached Berlin in late April 1945.
• Hitler committed suicide in Berlin on April 30, 1945,
refusing to flee the city. On May 8, Germany’s
remaining troops surrendered. Americans at home
celebrated V-E Day (Victory in Europe Day).
French Female Collaborators
Yalta Conference
• Feb. 1945 the Big Three meet at Yalta
• Again planned a war strategy, but did not
trust each other
• Stalin wanted control of Eastern Europe
• FDR and Churchill wanted self
determination for Eastern (right to choose
their own government)
The terms:
1. Soviets would enter the war with Japan
three months after German surrender
2. Divide Germany in Four Zones
1. Governed by French, British, American and
Soviet forces
3. Soviets get occupation zone in Korea
4. Free elections in Eastern Europe
Now answer the focus