Transcript SameField(+f,c,c

Markov Logic
Pedro Domingos
Dept. of Computer Science & Eng.
University of Washington
Desiderata
A language for cognitive modeling should:
 Handle uncertainty
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Noise
Incomplete information
Ambiguity
Handle complexity
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Many objects
Relations among them
IsA and IsPart hierarchies
Etc.
Solution
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Probability handles uncertainty
Logic handles complexity
What is the simplest way to
combine the two?
Markov Logic
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Assign weights to logical formulas
Treat formulas as templates for features
of Markov networks
Overview
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Representation
Inference
Learning
Applications
Propositional Logic
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Atoms: Symbols representing propositions
Logical connectives: ¬, Λ, V, etc.
Knowledge base: Set of formulas
World: Truth assignment to all atoms
Every KB can be converted to CNF
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CNF: Conjunction of clauses
Clause: Disjunction of literals
Literal: Atom or its negation
Entailment: Does KB entail query?
First-Order Logic
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Atom: Predicate(Variables,Constants)
E.g.: Friends ( Anna, x)
Ground atom: All arguments are constants
Quantifiers: , 
This tutorial: Finite, Herbrand interpretations
Markov Networks
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Undirected graphical models
Smoking
Cancer
Asthma
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Cough
Potential functions defined over cliques
1
P( x)    c ( xc )
Z c
Z    c ( xc )
x
c
Smoking Cancer
Ф(S,C)
False
False
4.5
False
True
4.5
True
False
2.7
True
True
4.5
Markov Networks
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Undirected graphical models
Smoking
Cancer
Asthma
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Cough
Log-linear model:
1

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P( x)  exp   wi f i ( x) 
Z
 i

Weight of Feature i
Feature i
 1 if  Smoking  Cancer
f1 (Smoking, Cancer )  
 0 otherwise
w1  0.51
Probabilistic Knowledge Bases
PKB = Set of formulas and their probabilities
+ Consistency + Maximum entropy
= Set of formulas and their weights
= Set of formulas and their potentials
(1 if formula true,  i if formula false)
1
ni ( world )
P( world )   i
Z i
Markov Logic
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A Markov Logic Network (MLN) is a set of
pairs (F, w) where
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F is a formula in first-order logic
w is a real number
An MLN defines a Markov network with
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One node for each grounding of each predicate
in the MLN
One feature for each grounding of each formula F
in the MLN, with the corresponding weight w
Relation to Statistical Models
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Special cases:
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Markov networks
Markov random fields
Bayesian networks
Log-linear models
Exponential models
Max. entropy models
Gibbs distributions
Boltzmann machines
Logistic regression
Hidden Markov models
Conditional random fields
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Obtained by making all
predicates zero-arity
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Markov logic allows
objects to be
interdependent
(non-i.i.d.)
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Markov logic facilitates
composition
Relation to First-Order Logic
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Infinite weights  First-order logic
Satisfiable KB, positive weights 
Satisfying assignments = Modes of distribution
formulas
Example
Friends ( Anna, Bob )
Friends ( Anna, Bob )
Happy (Bob )
Happy (Bob )
Example
Friends ( Anna, Bob )
Friends ( Anna, Bob )
 Happy ( Bob )
Friends ( Anna, Bob )
Happy (Bob )
Happy (Bob )
Example
P(Friends ( Anna, Bob )  Happy ( Bob ))  0.8
Friends ( Anna, Bob )
Friends ( Anna, Bob )
 Happy ( Bob )
Friends ( Anna, Bob )
Happy (Bob )
Happy (Bob )
Example
(Friends ( Anna, Bob )  Happy ( Bob ))  1
( Friends ( Anna, Bob )  Happy ( Bob ))  0.75
Friends ( Anna, Bob )
1
1
Friends ( Anna, Bob )
0.75
1
Happy (Bob )
Happy (Bob )
Example
w( (Friends ( Anna, Bob )  Happy ( Bob )))
 log( 1 / 0.75)  0.29
Friends ( Anna, Bob )
1
1
Friends ( Anna, Bob )
0.75
1
Happy (Bob )
Happy (Bob )
Overview
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Representation
Inference
Learning
Applications
Theorem Proving
TP(KB, Query)
KBQ ← KB U {¬ Query}
return ¬SAT(CNF(KBQ))
Satisfiability (DPLL)
SAT(CNF)
if CNF is empty return True
if CNF contains empty clause return False
choose an atom A
return SAT(CNF(A)) V SAT(CNF(¬A))
First-Order Theorem Proving
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Propositionalization
1. Form all possible ground atoms
2. Apply propositional theorem prover
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Lifted Inference: Resolution
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Resolve pairs of clauses until empty clause derived
Unify literals by substitution, e.g.: x  Bob unifies
Friends ( Anna, x) and Friends ( Anna, Bob )
Friends ( Anna, x)  Happy ( x)
Friends ( Anna, Bob )
Happy ( Bob )
Probabilistic Theorem Proving
Given Probabilistic knowledge base K
Query formula Q
Output P(Q|K)
Weighted Model Counting
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ModelCount(CNF) = # worlds that satisfy CNF
Assign a weight to each literal
Weight(world) = П weights(true literals)
Weighted model counting:
Given CNF C and literal weights W
Output Σ weights(worlds that satisfy C)
PTP is reducible to lifted WMC
Example
Friends ( Anna, Bob )
Friends ( Anna, Bob )
Friends ( Anna, Bob )
0.75
1
Happy (Bob )
Happy (Bob )
Example
1
P( Happy ( Bob ) | Friends ( Anna, Bob )) 
 0.57
1  0.75
Friends ( Anna, Bob )
Friends ( Anna, Bob )
0.75
1
Happy (Bob )
Happy (Bob )
Example
If P(Friends ( Anna, Bob )  Happy ( Bob ))  0.8
1
 0.57
Then P( Happy ( Bob ) | Friends ( Anna, Bob )) 
1  0.75
Friends ( Anna, Bob )
Friends ( Anna, Bob )
0.75
1
Happy (Bob )
Happy (Bob )
Example
P(Friends ( Anna, x)  Happy ( x))  0.8
Friends ( Anna, x)
Friends ( Anna, x)
 Happy ( x)
Friends ( Anna, x)
Happy (x)
Happy (x)
Example
P(Friends ( Anna, x)  Happy ( x))  0.8
Friends ( Anna, Bob )
Friends ( Anna, x)
x  Bob
Friends ( Anna, x)
 Happy ( x)
Friends ( Anna, x)
Friends ( Anna, Bob )
Friends ( Anna, Bob )
Happy (x)
0.75
1
Happy (Bob )
Happy (Bob )
Happy (x)
Inference Problems
Propositional Case
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All conditional probabilities are ratios
of partition functions:
P(Query | PKB) 
 worlds 1Query ( world )  i  i ( world )
Z ( PKB)
Z ( PKB  {( Query ,0)})

Z ( PKB)

All partition functions can be computed
by weighted model counting
Conversion to CNF + Weights
WCNF(PKB)
for all (Fi, Φi) є PKB s.t. Φi > 0 do
PKB ← PKB U {(Fi  Ai, 0)} \ {(Fi, Φi)}
CNF ← CNF(PKB)
for all ¬Ai literals do W¬Ai ← Φi
for all other literals L do wL ← 1
return (CNF, weights)
Probabilistic Theorem Proving
PTP(PKB, Query)
PKBQ ← PKB U {(Query,0)}
return WMC(WCNF(PKBQ))
/ WMC(WCNF(PKB))
Probabilistic Theorem Proving
PTP(PKB, Query)
PKBQ ← PKB U {(Query,0)}
return WMC(WCNF(PKBQ))
/ WMC(WCNF(PKB))
Compare:
TP(KB, Query)
KBQ ← KB U {¬ Query}
return ¬SAT(CNF(KBQ))
Weighted Model Counting
WMC(CNF, weights)
if all clauses in CNF are satisfied Base
Case
return  AA(CNF ) ( wA  wA )
if CNF has empty unsatisfied clause return 0
Weighted Model Counting
WMC(CNF, weights)
if all clauses in CNF are satisfied
return  AA(CNF ) ( wA  wA )
if CNF has empty unsatisfied clause return 0
if CNF can be partitioned into CNFs C1,…, Ck
sharing no atoms
Decomp.
k
return  i1 WMC (Ci , weights)
Step
Weighted Model Counting
WMC(CNF, weights)
if all clauses in CNF are satisfied
return  AA(CNF ) ( wA  wA )
if CNF has empty unsatisfied clause return 0
if CNF can be partitioned into CNFs C1,…, Ck
sharing no atoms
k
return  i1 WMC (Ci , weights)
Splitting
choose an atom A
Step
return wA WMC (CNF | A, weights)
 wA WMC (CNF | A, weights)
First-Order Case
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PTP schema remains the same
Conversion of PKB to hard CNF and weights:
New atom in Fi  Ai is now
Predicatei(variables in Fi, constants in Fi)
New argument in WMC:
Set of substitution constraints of the form
x = A, x ≠ A, x = y, x ≠ y
Lift each step of WMC
Lifted Weighted Model Counting
LWMC(CNF, substs, weights)
if all clauses in CNF are satisfied
Base
return  AA(CNF ) (wA  wA ) nA ( substs) Case
if CNF has empty unsatisfied clause return 0
Lifted Weighted Model Counting
LWMC(CNF, substs, weights)
if all clauses in CNF are satisfied
return  AA(CNF ) (wA  wA ) nA ( substs)
if CNF has empty unsatisfied clause return 0
if there exists a lifted decomposition of CNF
return ik1[ LWMC (CNFi ,1 , substs, weights)]mi
Decomp.
Step
Lifted Weighted Model Counting
LWMC(CNF, substs, weights)
if all clauses in CNF are satisfied
return  AA(CNF ) (wA  wA ) nA ( substs)
if CNF has empty unsatisfied clause return 0
if there exists a lifted decomposition of CNF
return ik1[ LWMC (CNFi ,1 , substs, weights)]mi
choose an atom A
Splitting
return
Step
 ni w w LWMC (CNF |  j , substs j , weights)
l
i 1
ti
A
fi
A
Extensions
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Unit propagation, etc.
Caching / Memoization
Knowledge-based model construction
Approximate Inference
WMC(CNF, weights)
if all clauses in CNF are satisfied
return  AA(CNF ) ( wA  wA )
if CNF has empty unsatisfied clause return 0
if CNF can be partitioned into CNFs C1,…, Ck
sharing no atoms
k
Splitting
return  i
1 WMC (Ci , weights)
Step
choose an atom A
wA
return
WMC (CNF | A, weights)
Q( A | CNF , weights)
with probability Q( A | CNF , weights) , etc.
MPE Inference
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Replace sums by maxes
Use branch-and-bound for efficiency
Do traceback
Overview
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Representation
Inference
Learning
Applications
Learning
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Data is a relational database
Closed world assumption (if not: EM)
Learning parameters (weights)
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Generatively
Discriminatively
Learning structure (formulas)
Generative Weight Learning
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Maximize likelihood
No local maxima
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log Pw ( x)  ni ( x)  Ew ni ( x)
wi
No. of true groundings of clause i in data
Expected no. true groundings according to model
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Requires inference at each step (slow!)
Pseudo-Likelihood
PL( x)   P( xi | neighbors ( xi ))
i
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Likelihood of each variable given its
neighbors in the data [Besag, 1975]
Does not require inference at each step
Consistent estimator
Widely used in vision, spatial statistics, etc.
But PL parameters may not work well for
long inference chains
Discriminative Weight Learning
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Maximize conditional likelihood of query (y)
given evidence (x)
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log Pw ( y | x)  ni ( x, y )  Ew ni ( x, y )
wi
No. of true groundings of clause i in data
Expected no. true groundings according to model
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Expected counts can be approximated
by counts in MAP state of y given x
Voted Perceptron
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Originally proposed for training HMMs
discriminatively [Collins, 2002]
Assumes network is linear chain
wi ← 0
for t ← 1 to T do
yMAP ← Viterbi(x)
wi ← wi + η [counti(yData) – counti(yMAP)]
return ∑t wi / T
Voted Perceptron for MLNs
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HMMs are special case of MLNs
Replace Viterbi by prob. theorem proving
Network can now be arbitrary graph
wi ← 0
for t ← 1 to T do
yMAP ← PTP(MLN U {x}, y)
wi ← wi + η [counti(yData) – counti(yMAP)]
return ∑t wi / T
Structure Learning
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Generalizes feature induction in Markov nets
Any inductive logic programming approach can be
used, but . . .
Goal is to induce any clauses, not just Horn
Evaluation function should be likelihood
Requires learning weights for each candidate
Turns out not to be bottleneck
Bottleneck is counting clause groundings
Solution: Subsampling
Structure Learning
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Initial state: Unit clauses or hand-coded KB
Evaluation function:
Pseudo-likelihood + Structure prior
Search:
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Beam, shortest-first [Kok & Domingos, 2005]
Bottom-up [Mihalkova & Mooney, 2007]
Relational pathfinding [Kok & Domingos, 2009, 2010]
Alchemy
Open-source software including:
 Full first-order logic syntax
 MAP and marginal/conditional inference
 Generative & discriminative weight learning
 Structure learning
 Programming language features
alchemy.cs.washington.edu
Alchemy
Prolog
BUGS
Represent- F.O. Logic +
ation
Markov nets
Horn
clauses
Bayes
nets
Inference
Probabilistic
thm. proving
Theorem Gibbs
proving
sampling
Learning
Parameters
& structure
No
Params.
Uncertainty Yes
No
Yes
Relational
Yes
No
Yes
Overview
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Representation
Inference
Learning
Applications
Applications to Date
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Natural language
processing
Information extraction
Entity resolution
Collective classification
Social network analysis
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Robot mapping
Activity recognition
Scene analysis
Computational biology
Probabilistic Cyc
Personal assistants
Etc.
Information Extraction
Parag Singla and Pedro Domingos, “Memory-Efficient
Inference in Relational Domains” (AAAI-06).
Singla, P., & Domingos, P. (2006). Memory-efficent
inference in relatonal domains. In Proceedings of the
Twenty-First National Conference on Artificial Intelligence
(pp. 500-505). Boston, MA: AAAI Press.
H. Poon & P. Domingos, Sound and Efficient Inference
with Probabilistic and Deterministic Dependencies”, in
Proc. AAAI-06, Boston, MA, 2006.
P. Hoifung (2006). Efficent inference. In Proceedings of the
Twenty-First National Conference on Artificial Intelligence.
Segmentation
Author
Title
Venue
Parag Singla and Pedro Domingos, “Memory-Efficient
Inference in Relational Domains” (AAAI-06).
Singla, P., & Domingos, P. (2006). Memory-efficent
inference in relatonal domains. In Proceedings of the
Twenty-First National Conference on Artificial Intelligence
(pp. 500-505). Boston, MA: AAAI Press.
H. Poon & P. Domingos, Sound and Efficient Inference
with Probabilistic and Deterministic Dependencies”, in
Proc. AAAI-06, Boston, MA, 2006.
P. Hoifung (2006). Efficent inference. In Proceedings of the
Twenty-First National Conference on Artificial Intelligence.
Entity Resolution
Parag Singla and Pedro Domingos, “Memory-Efficient
Inference in Relational Domains” (AAAI-06).
Singla, P., & Domingos, P. (2006). Memory-efficent
inference in relatonal domains. In Proceedings of the
Twenty-First National Conference on Artificial Intelligence
(pp. 500-505). Boston, MA: AAAI Press.
H. Poon & P. Domingos, Sound and Efficient Inference
with Probabilistic and Deterministic Dependencies”, in
Proc. AAAI-06, Boston, MA, 2006.
P. Hoifung (2006). Efficent inference. In Proceedings of the
Twenty-First National Conference on Artificial Intelligence.
Entity Resolution
Parag Singla and Pedro Domingos, “Memory-Efficient
Inference in Relational Domains” (AAAI-06).
Singla, P., & Domingos, P. (2006). Memory-efficent
inference in relatonal domains. In Proceedings of the
Twenty-First National Conference on Artificial Intelligence
(pp. 500-505). Boston, MA: AAAI Press.
H. Poon & P. Domingos, Sound and Efficient Inference
with Probabilistic and Deterministic Dependencies”, in
Proc. AAAI-06, Boston, MA, 2006.
P. Hoifung (2006). Efficent inference. In Proceedings of the
Twenty-First National Conference on Artificial Intelligence.
State of the Art
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Segmentation
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Entity resolution
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HMM (or CRF) to assign each token to a field
Logistic regression to predict same field/citation
Transitive closure
Alchemy implementation: Seven formulas
Types and Predicates
token = {Parag, Singla, and, Pedro, ...}
field = {Author, Title, Venue}
citation = {C1, C2, ...}
position = {0, 1, 2, ...}
Token(token, position, citation)
InField(position, field, citation)
SameField(field, citation, citation)
SameCit(citation, citation)
Types and Predicates
token = {Parag, Singla, and, Pedro, ...}
field = {Author, Title, Venue, ...}
citation = {C1, C2, ...}
position = {0, 1, 2, ...}
Token(token, position, citation)
InField(position, field, citation)
SameField(field, citation, citation)
SameCit(citation, citation)
Optional
Types and Predicates
token = {Parag, Singla, and, Pedro, ...}
field = {Author, Title, Venue}
citation = {C1, C2, ...}
position = {0, 1, 2, ...}
Token(token, position, citation)
Evidence
InField(position, field, citation)
SameField(field, citation, citation)
SameCit(citation, citation)
Types and Predicates
token = {Parag, Singla, and, Pedro, ...}
field = {Author, Title, Venue}
citation = {C1, C2, ...}
position = {0, 1, 2, ...}
Token(token, position, citation)
InField(position, field, citation)
SameField(field, citation, citation)
SameCit(citation, citation)
Query
Formulas
Token(+t,i,c) => InField(i,+f,c)
InField(i,+f,c) <=> InField(i+1,+f,c)
f != f’ => (!InField(i,+f,c) v !InField(i,+f’,c))
Token(+t,i,c) ^ InField(i,+f,c) ^ Token(+t,i’,c’)
^ InField(i’,+f,c’) => SameField(+f,c,c’)
SameField(+f,c,c’) <=> SameCit(c,c’)
SameField(f,c,c’) ^ SameField(f,c’,c”)
=> SameField(f,c,c”)
SameCit(c,c’) ^ SameCit(c’,c”) => SameCit(c,c”)
Formulas
Token(+t,i,c) => InField(i,+f,c)
InField(i,+f,c) <=> InField(i+1,+f,c)
f != f’ => (!InField(i,+f,c) v !InField(i,+f’,c))
Token(+t,i,c) ^ InField(i,+f,c) ^ Token(+t,i’,c’)
^ InField(i’,+f,c’) => SameField(+f,c,c’)
SameField(+f,c,c’) <=> SameCit(c,c’)
SameField(f,c,c’) ^ SameField(f,c’,c”)
=> SameField(f,c,c”)
SameCit(c,c’) ^ SameCit(c’,c”) => SameCit(c,c”)
Formulas
Token(+t,i,c) => InField(i,+f,c)
InField(i,+f,c) <=> InField(i+1,+f,c)
f != f’ => (!InField(i,+f,c) v !InField(i,+f’,c))
Token(+t,i,c) ^ InField(i,+f,c) ^ Token(+t,i’,c’)
^ InField(i’,+f,c’) => SameField(+f,c,c’)
SameField(+f,c,c’) <=> SameCit(c,c’)
SameField(f,c,c’) ^ SameField(f,c’,c”)
=> SameField(f,c,c”)
SameCit(c,c’) ^ SameCit(c’,c”) => SameCit(c,c”)
Formulas
Token(+t,i,c) => InField(i,+f,c)
InField(i,+f,c) <=> InField(i+1,+f,c)
f != f’ => (!InField(i,+f,c) v !InField(i,+f’,c))
Token(+t,i,c) ^ InField(i,+f,c) ^ Token(+t,i’,c’)
^ InField(i’,+f,c’) => SameField(+f,c,c’)
SameField(+f,c,c’) <=> SameCit(c,c’)
SameField(f,c,c’) ^ SameField(f,c’,c”)
=> SameField(f,c,c”)
SameCit(c,c’) ^ SameCit(c’,c”) => SameCit(c,c”)
Formulas
Token(+t,i,c) => InField(i,+f,c)
InField(i,+f,c) <=> InField(i+1,+f,c)
f != f’ => (!InField(i,+f,c) v !InField(i,+f’,c))
Token(+t,i,c) ^ InField(i,+f,c) ^ Token(+t,i’,c’)
^ InField(i’,+f,c’) => SameField(+f,c,c’)
SameField(+f,c,c’) <=> SameCit(c,c’)
SameField(f,c,c’) ^ SameField(f,c’,c”)
=> SameField(f,c,c”)
SameCit(c,c’) ^ SameCit(c’,c”) => SameCit(c,c”)
Formulas
Token(+t,i,c) => InField(i,+f,c)
InField(i,+f,c) <=> InField(i+1,+f,c)
f != f’ => (!InField(i,+f,c) v !InField(i,+f’,c))
Token(+t,i,c) ^ InField(i,+f,c) ^ Token(+t,i’,c’)
^ InField(i’,+f,c’) => SameField(+f,c,c’)
SameField(+f,c,c’) <=> SameCit(c,c’)
SameField(f,c,c’) ^ SameField(f,c’,c”)
=> SameField(f,c,c”)
SameCit(c,c’) ^ SameCit(c’,c”) => SameCit(c,c”)
Formulas
Token(+t,i,c) => InField(i,+f,c)
InField(i,+f,c) <=> InField(i+1,+f,c)
f != f’ => (!InField(i,+f,c) v !InField(i,+f’,c))
Token(+t,i,c) ^ InField(i,+f,c) ^ Token(+t,i’,c’)
^ InField(i’,+f,c’) => SameField(+f,c,c’)
SameField(+f,c,c’) <=> SameCit(c,c’)
SameField(f,c,c’) ^ SameField(f,c’,c”)
=> SameField(f,c,c”)
SameCit(c,c’) ^ SameCit(c’,c”) => SameCit(c,c”)
Formulas
Token(+t,i,c) => InField(i,+f,c)
InField(i,+f,c) ^ !Token(“.”,i,c) <=> InField(i+1,+f,c)
f != f’ => (!InField(i,+f,c) v !InField(i,+f’,c))
Token(+t,i,c) ^ InField(i,+f,c) ^ Token(+t,i’,c’)
^ InField(i’,+f,c’) => SameField(+f,c,c’)
SameField(+f,c,c’) <=> SameCit(c,c’)
SameField(f,c,c’) ^ SameField(f,c’,c”)
=> SameField(f,c,c”)
SameCit(c,c’) ^ SameCit(c’,c”) => SameCit(c,c”)
Results: Segmentation on Cora
1
Precision
0.8
0.6
0.4
Tokens
0.2
Tok. + Seq. + Period
Tokens + Sequence
Tok. + Seq. + P. + Comma
0
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
Recall
0.8
1
Results:
Matching Venues on Cora
1
Precision
0.8
0.6
Similarity
0.4
Sim. + Relations
Sim. + Transitivity
0.2
Sim. + Rel. + Trans.
0
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
Recall
0.8
1
Summary
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
Cognitive modeling requires combination
of logical and statistical techniques
We need to unify the two
Markov logic


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Syntax: Weighted logical formulas
Semantics: Markov network templates
Inference: Probabilistic theorem proving
Learning: Statistical inductive logic programming
Many applications to date
Resources

Open-source software/Web site: Alchemy
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Learning and inference algorithms
Tutorials, manuals, etc.
MLNs, datasets, etc.
Publications
alchemy.cs.washington.edu

Book: Domingos & Lowd, Markov Logic,
Morgan & Claypool, 2009.