Transcript Slide 1

Is Astrology Pseudo-science or
Ingi Taha, Nada Ali, Mona el Beltagi and
Shaymaa Hassan
Definition of Astrology
• Astrology is the study of how events on earth correspond to
the positions and movements of astronomical bodies.
• These astronomical bodies included are the sun, moon,
planets and stars. Depending on the position of these
bodies at the exact moment of a person's birth, Astrologers
believe these bodies and their movements reflect that
person's character.
• The knowledge of the person's character and their relation
to the bodies enables astrologers to predict a person's
destiny. This prediction is not limited to one person. A
prediction could be for an individual, group or nation.
History of Astrology
Astrology was created in 3000 BC was developed independently.
The Chaldeans created the original form of Astrology. The Chaldeans lived in
Babylonia. Currently, this location is Iraq.
The Chinese were practicing astrology by 2000 BC. Other varieties formed in
ancient India. Astrology also stemmed to the Mayans of Central America. By 500s
BC, Astrology had spread to Greece.
Astrology was widely practiced in Europe through the Middle Ages, despite the
rejection of the Christian leaders (including Augustine). One objection of the
Christian leaders was that Astrology challenged the fate vs. free will argument.
Other great minds disagreed with the truth behind Astrology. Some felt the
Astrology was created to set up a system to control and manipulate a culture.
These opposing minds stress that there are no scientific facts to prove that
Astrologer's methods are valid. Astrology has come in and out of popularity
throughout history. Today, Astrology is followed more widely than ever before.
Astrology has become much more assessable by 900 phone numbers. These 900
numbers enable caller to talk to live Astrologers, who forecast their personalized
Definition of Pseudoscience
• Pseudo science is: a body of knowledge ,
methodology, belief, or practice that is made
to appear scientific, merely by using terms of
science but which do not adhere to the
scientific method , which lacks supporting
evidence or plausibility, which otherwise lacks
of scientific status.
Why astrology is considered a
• According to Karl popper and others, because:
a) Astrological predictions are always vague so that
these can never be refuted using facts and research
b) Theory based on misunderstanding of astronomy
c) No progress of revision of the theory of astrology
for thousands of years
d) Selective in considering evidence to check validity
of predictive capability.
e) No attempt to critically re-evaluate the theory in
relation to the new facts.
• Horoscopes are one major example of Astrology.
• A horoscope is a diagram of the heavenly bodies
showing the relative positions of the sun, moon,
stars, and planets at a given time.
• The Zodiac divides the calendar year into 12 sections,
and then each section is represented by a sign.
• The signs of the zodiac include Aries, Taurus, Gemini,
Cancer, Leo, Virgo, Libra, Scorpio, Sagittarius,
Capricorn and Pisces. Astrologers assign every planet
(including the sun and moon) with a particular sign of
the Zodiac.
Horoscope love match:
Aquarius woman - Libra
Astrologers claim that two certain
horoscopes do not match together
such as Libra and Aquarius.
However, Angelina Jolie and Brad
Bitt are a couple that respectively
follow these horoscopes and they
live happy together.
The Libra man is an idealist whose
romantic sexuality could lead the
Aquarius woman deeply astray.
The Libra man needs romantic
conversations and the relationship
with the Aquarius woman can be
The Aquarius woman - Libra man
romance is a lively, fun-loving
relationship with little emotional
• The case of the twins is another example of
Astrology that proves that Astrology is
• The key is with fraternal twins: two
individuals conceived and born at the same
time, but through different eggs and sperm.
Because of this, the DNA in each is unique.
Astrology would predict that they should
still live relatively similar lives (at least to
the same degree that identical twins do),
but genetics would not. According to actual
research, the predictions of science prove to
be true. Astrology loses.
• Further evidence on this point is provided
by so-called "Astral Twins." These
individuals are born at the same time and in
the same area (the same hospital, for
example). According to astrology, astral
twins should also live essentially the same
sort of lives because they are under the
same celestial influences. Research,
however, has proven such predictions
Palm Reading and
• Palm Reading and
Astrology may claim
different future for each
• For example, Someone
could be a Sagittarius and
what is said in his
horoscope is different than
what his palm is saying.
• Palm reading and
Horoscopes may tell
different predictions.
Astrologers’ Point Of View
• Some astrologers claim that astrology is a
science because it is based on empirical
evidence: experience and observation.
• According to traditional definitions of science,
astrology is scientific because it is a discipline
which uses set rules to explain natural
phenomena. Also, the Greek word 'scientia'
simply means 'wisdom'. Some astrologers
claim that traditional astrology is a science.
Science agrees that the celestial bodies act upon each other but, in order to
describe this action it uses the concept of force. This concept is based on the Third
Law of Dynamics as a principle to measure the forces. This gives the possibility of a
quantitative evaluation to the influence of bodies themselves, of which Astrology
cannot speak, in spite of the bombastic use of unwarranted words by astrologers.
Phrases like "powerful influence of Jupiter from Aries" or "forceful influence of Sun
from the house of Gemini" have no quantitative meaning: the influence they are
talking about has not been quantified (yet).
On the other hand one shouldn't have too much confidence in Science either, at
least when it comes to the concept of force. Indeed, the Third Law, as accepted
today, is just as unfalsifiable as the astrological assertions: there is no possibility of
finding situations where it is false. Everything starts here with the observation
that, when acting upon matter, a force is always resisted by a contrary force. The
Third Law states that the two are equal in magnitude. As long as we limit its
dominion only to matter, the Third Law is always true by its very nature: this is how
it came to our senses!
• Unfortunately, this law was also extended to action and reaction in
general, no matter if they are done in the same point or not, and even to
non-material structures. Indeed, we can imagine equilibrium of forces in a
space point in general, even without considering it a material point. There
is really no way of finding situations where the Third Law is false, if we
extend the concept of force to include the action at distance. A situation
appropriate for the falsification of the law in the sense of Popper is the
action of two forces in two different points of space with no matter joining
them. This is the essential attribute of the action at a distance, where the
principle is usually supposed to work by default, just because we think of
the force as of an independent concept. For instance, according to the
Third Law the force of action of the Sun upon Earth must be equal with
the force of action of Earth upon Sun, even though the first one acts at the
location of Earth, while the second acts at the location of Sun. They are
action and reaction!
• In order to show that the gravitation is an inter-action (sic!) Newton
imagined two globes rotating around each other and joined by a
cord, thereby asserting that we can feel the force in the cord, and
that force will be an indication of the relative motion of the two
globes which, by the way, is an entirely true and even realizable
"For instance, if two globes, kept at a given distance one from
another by means of a cord that connects them, were revolved
about their common centre of gravity, we might, from the tension
of the cord, discover the endeavor of the globes to recede from the
axis of their motion, and from thence we might compute the
quantity of their circular motions."
• Here we are using the scientific method to
see if Astrology is a true science or not!
• Finally, after all this discussion, do you think
that Astrology should be considered as
Pseudo-science or Science?
Work Cited
Thank you for your attention