Transcript Ecology

Ch. 4
Section 1: Ecosystems
• Everything is connected
• Ecosystems are all the organisms living with all the
abiotic factors in an area
• Each made up of layers of organisms
• 1.) Organism: living thing
• 2.) Species: group of living things that can produce a viable offspring
• Ex.) Horse: YES, Mule: NO
• 3.) Population: all the members of the same species in a given area or
• Ex.) Humans in Mr. Eidsmoe’s room
• 4.) Community: group of populations that live in the same area
• Ex.) Bacteria, Flies, Humans in Mr. Eidsmoe’s room
Section 2: Evolution
• Organisms tend to be well suited for their environments
• 1859 Charles Darwin proposed an answer why
• Traveled on the HMS Beagle and studied different animals
• Ex.) Finches, Blue-footed boobie, Marine Iguanas, Tortoises
• Darwin stated that the environment selects traits that make animals
better suited to survive in nature (Natural Selection)
• Gives the “better or stronger” animals a better chance to survive
• Evolution: change in genetic variations in a population
from one generation to the next
• Ex.) Opposable Thumbs (Humans)
Evolution continued…
• Darwin thought nature selected the best traits to survive
• Survival of the fittest
• These selections over time (millions of years) gives rise to
new species
• Ex.) Fig. 8 (pg. 99)
• Darwin proposed Adaptations
• Inherited trait that increases the organism’s chance of survival
• Coevolution: two species evolving in response to long-
term interactions with each other
• Ex.) Hawaiian honey-creeper & lobelia flower
• Evolution by Artificial Selection:
• This is what happens when humans get involved
• Ex.) Chihuahua & The Wolf (Both closely related since all dogs derived
from today’s wolves)
• Humans artificially select traits instead of nature selecting traits
• Ex.) All fruits, grains, vegetables have been affected by artificial
• Why?
• Evolution of resistance:
• When an organism evolves the characteristics to survive against a
certain chemical
• Ex.) Anti-bacterial soaps (How does it work?)
Section 3: Diversity of Life