Religion and Science

download report

Transcript Religion and Science

Religion and Science
Creationism vs Science?
Christianity
Before the Scientific
Revolution, people
thought the Earth was the
centre of the Universe
and everything moved
around it.
People believed that
humans were the final
part of God’s creation,
and therefore the most
important beings on the
most important planet.
Science
Since the Scientific
Revolution, these beliefs
have been challenged;
our planet is not at the
centre of the Universe
and we are just one of
many millions of galaxies.
The Universe has
evolved over billions of
years and is still
changing; we are one of
many life forms that is
constantly evolving in
response to our changing
environment.
The Origins of the Universe
Christian understanding…
In the beginning…
God said ‘let
there be light’
and He made day
and night
On the second day…
God created the sky
On the third day…
God created land & sea
and then all the plants
On the fourth day…
God created the sun and
the moon and the stars
On the fifth day…
God created birds for the
air and fish for the
waters
On the sixth day…
God created animals to
roam the earth…
…and finally
He created
humans in His
own image to
rule over all the
creatures
The Origins of the Universe:
Christianity
• Turn your page landscape
• Write the following subtitle:
The Bible tells how the world was created in the first
book of the Bible: Genesis (Chapter 1)
• Draw this arrow in your book
Day 1
Day
2
Day
3
Day 4
Day 5
Day 6
Day 7
God created
birds and fish
to fill the sky
and sea
God created
animals and
human
beings
The heavens
and the
earth were
finished and
God rested
God
separated
light and
darkness
The earth
was
shapeless
and empty
God
separated
sea from
dry land
God
separated
water and
sky
God created
lights to
rule the day
and night
God
created
plants
The Origins of the Universe:
Christianity
The earth
was
shapeless
and empty
God
separated
sea from
dry land
Day
1
God
separated
light and
darkness
Day
2
Day
3
God
God
separated created
water and plants
sky
God created
lights to
rule the day
and night
Day
4
Day
5
God created
birds and fish
to fill the sky
and sea
God created
animals and
human
beings
Day
6
Day
7
The heavens
and the
earth were
finished and
God rested
James Ussher
• He was an English
bishop
• He lived in the 17thC
• He calculated the
time of creation by
working through the
dates in the Bible
• Creation took place
at 9am on 26th
October 4004 BCE
“Strong Creationism”
• This is an example of “strong
creationism”. Such Christians believe
that God created the world in 6 days of
24 hours each.
• Their understanding is that the Bible is
the Word of God and must be true.
• Therefore, the creation of the world
must have happened exactly as
described.
Take a look at the text…
• This is a translation of Genesis 1
• What evidence is there that this is
more of a poem than history?
• Take a highlighter and find any
examples you can of poetic language:
– Repeated phrases
– A “verse-like” structure
If it is a poem…
• …what is it trying to say?
• Look again at the text.
• What points is it trying to make about
the world and how it was made?
“Weak Creationism”
• Thinking about the creation story in this way
is called “weak creationism”.
• Such liberal Christians still believe God
created the world (“creationism”)
• But they don’t believe that it literally
happened in 6 days – they take the message
of the poem with out taking the poem
literally.
• (Note: When people refer to “creationism”
on its own they are probably talking about
“strong creationism”).
The Origins of the Universe:
Christianity
• Genesis 1 teaches that the universe was
made by God; God made it out of nothing:
“In the beginning God created the heavens and the
earth. Now the earth was formless and empty…”
Genesis 1:1
• God planned and made the world carefully,
nothing happened by chance or accident; all
the different species were there from the
beginning:
“God made the wild animals…, the livestock.., and all
the creatures that move along the ground...” Genesis
1:25
How do these beliefs differ
from those of Scientists?
What are the challenges of
Science to Religion?
The Origins of the Universe:
Science
• Scientists think the Universe was made by a
massive explosion – a BIG BANG
• The Big Bang sent matter and gases flying in
all directions
• As matter collided it formed the planets and
stars that formed into galaxies; these are
still moving apart as the Universe continues
to expand
• There is evidence to support this theory;
background radiation left over from the Big
Bang can be detected with powerful
telescopes
Dense
matter,
smaller
than
the eye
of a
needle
How does Science challenge
Religion?
• The Big Bang happened 14 billion
years ago, not 6-7000 years ago
• The process took many millions of
years, not 7 days
• The process appears to happen by
chance and through natural laws, not
by divine intervention
• The Universe is still changing, it is not
perfectly completed to a grand design
Genesis
Similarities
Big Bang
Some ideas to help you!
• Run by laws of Physics and
Maths
• All created over time, still
changing
• Planet Earth is fit for
purpose
• God made everything piece
by piece
• All things created
separately and purposefully
• Began at one point in time
• Happened over 14 billion
years
• Happened by chance
• Happened over time
• Began with light
• God is in charge
• Earth is central to creation
story
• Happened in 6 days
• No creator
• Earth is one of many planets
Genesis
God made
everything piece by
piece
Happened in 6 days
All things created
separately and
purposefully
God is in charge
Earth is central to
creation story
Big Bang
Similarities
No creator
Happened by
chance
Began with light
Began at one
point in time
Happened over
time
Planet Earth is fit
for purpose
Happened over 14
billion years
All created over
time, still changing
Earth is one of
many planets
Run by laws of
Physics and Maths
Which of these would a Liberal Christian believe and which would a
Conservative Christian believe?
Some views of the relationship
•
•
•
•
The creationist’s view
The liberal view
An atheist's view
Creationist vs atheist scientist
The Origins of Humanity
Christian beliefs…
The Origins of Humanity:
Christianity
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
The Bible tells how humans were created in the first
book of the Bible: Genesis (Chapter 2)
God made human last; they were given pride of place in
the world
Humans were made in the image of God (Genesis 1:27)
so share something of God’s nature
Adam was given the breath of life; a personal creation
Humans were given a soul, animals were not
Adam and Eve were given the Garden of Eden to live in;
it was perfect
Adam and Eve were put in charge of all the animals and
creation
All the different animals were shown to Adam and Eve so
they could choose names for them
“He brought them to the man to see what he would name them”
Genesis 2:19
Christian Origins of Humanity
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
L
I
B
S
E
C
A
D Part Question
Explain why
Christians believe
God intended
humans to be more
important than other
forms of life.
(7 Minutes)
D Part Model Answer
• There are several examples in the book of Genesis
which Christians use to show that humans are more
important than other creatures. Firstly, God created
humans last. Secondly, only humans were created
in the “image of God” and were given the “breath of
life”. These two also imply that humans have a
“soul”.
• Finally, human beings were given authority and a
position of stewardship over the animals. Genesis
also says that God put Adam and Eve in charge.
D Part Model Answer (improved)
• There are several examples in the book of Genesis which
Christians use to show that humans are more important than
other creatures. Firstly, God created humans last, which
suggests that they are the pinnacle of creation. Secondly, only
humans were created in the “image of God” and were given
the “breath of life”, which shows that humans share something
of God’s nature which other creatures do not. These two also
imply that humans have a “soul” which distinguishes us from
the rest of creation and makes us special.
• Finally, human beings were given authority and a position of
stewardship over the animals. This authority is shown in the
story of Adam being given the job of naming the animals.
Genesis also says that God put Adam and Eve in charge,
which clearly demonstrates that they are more important than
the animals of which they are in charge.
Look at your own answer
How much explanation is there?
Have you just listed “facts” or have
you explained them?
How do these beliefs differ
from those of Scientists?
What are the challenges of
Science to Religion?
The Origins of Humanity:
Science
• In 1830 Charles Darwin travelled the world on a ship
called The Beagle studying plant and animal life.
His studies led him to conclude that species evolve
over time
• 150 years on, most scientists today still accept this
theory
The Origins of Humanity:
Science
• As conditions change, e.g. climate, the
species most able to cope will survive and
reproduce; others will die out
• The next generations have slightly different
characteristics as species gradually change
over time in response to their environment
• This is known as natural selection through
survival of the fittest: weaker animals die
out; the strongest ones survive to reproduce
and pass on their genes
Continuous
Change,
e.g. Climate
Remember our
stinging ameobas?
Those able to
cope with
change,
survive and
reproduce:
SURVIVAL OF
THE FITTEST
Other
species/mem
bers of the
species die
out
Over time,
species change
in line with
their
environment:
NATURAL
SELECTION
Extinction
Climate change
Natural selection
Survival of the fittest
How does Science challenge
Religion?
• People have evolved gradually over millions
of years, not as the conclusion to a
designed creation
• Species are always changing and some
become extinct, they have not all been here
since the beginning of time in a perfect form
• Humans are the product of natural forces in
the world, not divine intervention
• Survival of species is based on adaptability
and suitability, not a grand design
How does the process of
evolution work?
Evolution
“Is it credible that all favourable
varieties of turnips are tending to
become men…?”
Bishop Samuel Wilberforce
reviewing Darwin’s book ‘On the
origin of species’ in 1860
Edmund Gosse
Gosse thought the
fossils were planted
by God to test the
faith of humans.
“I am endeavouring to
show that a grand law
exists, by which, in two
great departments of
nature at least, the
analogues of the fossil
skeletons were formed
without pre-existence.”
The Catholic Church
only accepted
evolution theory in
1996
In some parts of the
USA, it is illegal to
teach evolution as it
goes against the
biblical teachings.
Genesis
Similarities
Evolution
Some ideas to help you!
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Nature selects successful species
Humans have control over animals
Humans have a special place on Earth
God made humans in His own image
Humans evolved by chance
Humans were the last creature created by God
All living things die out if they can’t adapt to change
Humans were here from the beginning
The order of creation of species is similar
God created each living thing in turn
Only the fittest survive
All living things were created in 6 days
Humans have evolved over many years
Genesis
Humans have control
over animals
Similarities
God made humans
in His own image
Humans were the
last creature
created by God
Humans were here
from the beginning
Humans have a special
place on Earth
The order of creation of
species is similar
God created each
living thing in turn
All living things
were created in 6
days
God was in charge
of our creation
Evolution
Humans evolved
by chance
All living things die
out if they can’t
adapt to change
Nature selects
successful species
Only the fittest
survive
Humans have
evolved over many
years
Answer the following questions
1. Why is the Big Bang theory a
challenge to religious belief?
2. Does evolution theory make humans
less special than the Genesis
account?
3. Why do some people not accept the
theory of evolution?
4. If the Adam and Eve story is not
literally true, does it mean that the
Bible is wrong?
Where does this leave the relationship
between Science and Religion?
The Conflict
Religion
1. There is a plan to the
Universe: God is very
much in charge
2. According to Genesis,
creation took 6 days
from beginning to end
3. Humans are a special
creation who have
been given control
over the animals
Science
1. The Universe is here
by chance; there is no
reason or plan
2. The process of
creation has taken
billions of years
3. Humans have evolved
gradually and have
gained superiority
over time
The Conflict
• Some people say that Science and Religion
can never agree; they speak entirely
different languages so the conflict can never
be resolved
• Some people think that one day either
Science or Religion might be proved right
• Some people think it is possible to believe in
both Scientific theory and have religious
faith (Professor Polkinghorne is a Scientist
at Cambridge University and an Anglican
Priest)
The Relationship between
Science and Religion
• Religion and Science are often seen as
being in conflict: one based on faith
(speculative), the other based on fact
(correct): CONFLICT
• They can be seen as being entirely
separate: science asks ‘How?’; religion
asks ‘Why?’: INDEPENDENCE
• The can be seen as intimately linked:
science teaches about the world; religion
uses this to understand more about God
and His creation. Religion might be used to
manage the ethics of science: DIALOGUE
The Similarities
• The Universe had a
beginning
• The Universe began
with light
• Plant life came
before animal life
• Humans came last
• Humans have a
superior place on
the planet
Christian views
• CREATIONISTS – The Bible is literally true so
Science is wrong and the Bible is right; the Big
Bang and Evolution theories are rejected in favour
of the Genesis account of creation
• CONSERVATIVES – There is literal truth in the Bible,
but this does not discount Scientific ideas; the Bible
mentions ‘let there be light’ and this could refer to
the Big Bang
• LIBERALS – The Bible if full of metaphorical
language and Genesis is a creation myth used to
explain how God made the world; Science gives the
accurate explanation, but doesn’t discount the role
of God in the Big Bang and evolution
Non-literal interpretations of the
Bible
Myth
A story which
contains important
truths, but does not
necessarily
describe what
happened
historically. A
poetic way of telling
important truths.
Metaphorical
Language
Language that
expresses
something, which is
not a literal fact. It
adds vividness or
draws comparisons.