Psychology

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Transcript Psychology

Unit 1
Psychology’s
History & Approaches
Students’ Names
A.P. Psychology
Essential Question
How did Psychology begin, as a
science, and what are the modern
psychological perspectives?
Day 1:
Unit 1 (A):
Historical Approaches
of Psychology
Students’ Names
A.P. Psychology
Do-Now:
(In Journal)
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Why study Psychology?
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Consider the following:
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Types of Research
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Psychological Professions
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Goals of Psychology
Why have you chosen to take A.P. Psychology?
Psychology
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Psychology:
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The study of behavior and mental processes
Empiricism:
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The view that knowledge originates in experience
and that science should, rely on observation and
experimentation
Psychology
Psychology: Fact or Falsehood
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Task:
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Complete “Psychology: Fact or Falsehood”
(Handout P-1) 10-Question True/False Quiz
The Origins of Psychology
From which areas
of study do you think
Psychology originated?
The Origins of Psychology
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Psychology has its roots in
Ancient Greek Philosophy (600400 B.C.E.), and continues
throughout world history.
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Over time, several approaches
to studying human thought and
behavior continued to develop
and change
Historical Approaches of Psychology
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Historical Approaches of Psychology:
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Structuralism:
Structure of the human mind
 Introspection
 Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920)
 *Psychology officially recognized (1879)
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Functionalism:
Function/Role of the human mind
 William James (1842-1910)
 The Principles of Psychology (1890)
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Historical Approaches of Psychology
How might we compare
Structuralism and Functionalism
to studying an automobile?
Historical Approaches of Psychology
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Historical Approaches of Psychology:
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Inheritable Traits:
Influence of heredity on human thought and behavior
 Sir Francis Galton (1822-1911)
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Gestalt Psychology:
Human sensation and perception
 Gestalt: “whole pattern”(e.g. chair vs. seat, legs, back, etc.)
 Max Wertheimer (1880-1943)
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Historical Approaches of Psychology
What areas of
modern Psychology
do you think originated from
Inheritable Traits
and Gestalt Psychology?
Psychological Science Develops
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Throughout the 20th century, Psychology
continued to expand as a study integrating the
views of both Philosophy and Biochemistry:
Experimental Psychology
 Behaviorism
 Psychoanalytic Theory
 Humanistic Psychology
 Cognitive Neuroscience
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Review
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What is Psychology? Why should Psychology
rely on Empiricism?

Briefly describe the 4 Historical Approaches to
Psychology:
Structuralism
 Functionalism
 Inheritable Traits
 Gestalt Psychology
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Day 2:
Unit 1 (B):
Contemporary
Approaches to
Psychology
Students’ Names
A.P. Psychology
Do-Now:
(Discussion)
Describe the 4
Historical Approaches
to Psychology

Which approaches
do you feel have most influenced
Modern Psychology?
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Contemporary Approaches to Psychology
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Biological:
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Biochemical/Physical factors
Behavioral Genetics
Cognitive Neuroscience
Evolutionary:
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Natural Selection
“Survival of the Fittest”
Charles Darwin (1809-1882)
Contemporary Approaches to Psychology
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Psychodynamic:
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“Unconscious” drives/conflicts
Past/Early childhood
Sigmund Freud (1856-1939)
Behavioral:
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Observable behavior
Events in the environment
(rewards/punishments)
Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936)
B.F. Skinner (1904-1990)
Contemporary Approaches to Psychology
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Cognitive:
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How we process, retrieve, and
store information
Mental activities (thinking,
knowing, remembering,
communicating)
Jean Piaget (1896-1980)
Noam Chomsky (1928-Present)
Contemporary Approaches to Psychology
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Humanistic:
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Individual/Self-directed choices
Carl Rogers (1902-1987)
Abraham Maslow (1908-1970)
Social-Cultural:
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Sex, gender, race, ethnicity, sexual
orientation, culture, environment,
socioeconomic status
Stanley Milgram (1933-1984)
Contemporary Approaches to Psychology
Which contemporary approaches of
Psychology do feel are most favorable?
Why?
Contemporary Approaches to Psychology
Perspective
Focus
Sample Questions
Biological/
Neuroscience
How do the body and
brain enable emotions?
How are messages
transmitted in the body? How
is blood chemistry linked with
moods and motives?
Evolutionary
How does natural
selection of traits promote
the perpetuation of one’s
genes?
How does evolution influence
behavior tendencies?
Behavior genetics How much do our genes
and our environments
influence our individual
differences?
To what extent are
psychological traits such as
intelligence, personality,
sexual orientation, and
vulnerability to depression
attributable to our genes? To
our environment?
Contemporary Approaches to Psychology
Perspective
Focus
Sample Questions
Psychodynamic
How does behavior spring How can someone’s
from unconscious drives
personality traits and
and conflicts?
disorders be explained in
terms of sexual and
aggressive drives or as
disguised effects of unfulfilled
wishes and childhood
traumas?
Behavioral
How do we learn
observable responses?
How do we learn to fear
particular objects or
situations? What is the most
effective way to alter our
behavior, say to lose weight or
quit smoking?
Contemporary Approaches to Psychology
Perspective
Focus
Sample Questions
Cognitive
How do we encode,
process, store and retrieve
information?
How do we use information
in remembering? Reasoning?
Problem solving?
Social-cultural
How does behavior and
thinking vary across
situations and cultures?
How are we — as Africans,
Asians, Australians or North
Americans – alike as members
of human family? As products
of different environmental
contexts, how do we differ?
Contemporary Approaches to Psychology
Because no individual approach may explain
human thought and behavior exclusively,
psychologists often take a more
integrated approach, known as the
Biopsychosocial Approach.
Contemporary Approaches to Psychology:
Biopsychosocial Approach
Nature Vs. Nurture
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What is the “Nature-Nurture” controversy
facing Psychology?
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Which factor do you feel is more influential on
human thought and behavior? Do you feel they
are equally influential?
Nature Vs. Nurture
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“Nature-Nurture” Issue:
Psychological controversy
 Debate of origin of personality
traits
 “Nature” = Genes
 “Nurture” = Experiences
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Nature Vs. Nurture
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Psychologists often debate the “Nature-Nurture” issue with
these types of questions:
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How are we humans alike (because of our common biology and
evolutionary history) and diverse (because of our differing environments)?
Are gender differences biologically predisposed or socially constructed?
Is children’s grammar mostly innate or formed by experience?
How are differences in intelligence and personality influenced by
heredity and environment?
Are sexual behaviors more “pushed” by inner biology or “pulled” by external
incentives?
Should we treat psychological disorders – depression, for example – as
disorders of the brain, disorders of thought, or both?
Psychology: Fact or Falsehood
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Task:
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Complete “Nature Vs. Nurture” (Handout P-3)15Question Survey
Review
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Briefly describe the 7 Contemporary Approaches to
Psychology:
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Biological
Evolutionary
Psychodynamic
Behavioral
Cognitive
Humanistic
Social-Cultural
What is the “Nature-Nurture” Issue? What are some
ways that psychologists may address this?
Day 3:
Unit 1 (C):
Contemporary
Approaches to
Psychology
Students’ Names
A.P. Psychology
Do-Now:
(Discussion)
Describe the 7
Contemporary Approaches
to Psychology

Which approach(es)
do you feel is/are most favorable?
Why?
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Contemporary Approaches to Psychology:
“The Outrageous Celebrity”
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Directions:
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Choose a celebrity who is known for their outrageous behavior,
style, and/or persona. Provide a list of his/her behavior that
you consider abnormal, or out of the ordinary. Next, apply
what you have learned about the 7 Contemporary
Approaches to Psychology, by describing how each school of
thought would explain the behavior. Feel free to be creative
(and even outrageous), as long as your reasoning falls in line
with each perspective. Be prepared to share your responses
verbally with the class.
Contemporary Approaches to Psychology:
“The Outrageous Celebrity”
Contemporary Approaches to Psychology:
“The Outrageous Celebrity”
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Part I.: Background Information
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Which celebrity did you choose and why? Provide a list of
his/her behavior that you consider abnormal.
Part II.: 7 Contemporary Approaches to Psychology
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Biological Psychology
Evolutionary Psychology
Psychodynamic Psychology
Behavioral Psychology
Cognitive Psychology
Humanistic Psychology
Social-Cultural Psychology
Day 4:
Unit 1 (D):
Psychology’s Subfields
Students’ Names
A.P. Psychology
Do-Now:
(In Journal)
 What
is the difference between a
Psychologist and a Psychiatrist?
 What
are some of the
subfields of Psychology?
Psychology’s Subfields
Psychologist – Patient Dialogue
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Directions:
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Choose one of Psychology’s Subfields that we discussed in
class
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With a partner, create a hypothetical dialogue between the
psychologist of that subfield and the patient (7-10 lines per
person)
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Incorporate (If applicable):
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Area of study
Duties
Clients they work with
Where they work
Day 5:
Unit 1 (E):
Tips for Studying
Psychology
Students’ Names
A.P. Psychology
Do-Now:
(In Journal)

What are some ways that studying
Psychology can help you:
 As
 In
a student
general (friendships, relationships, college,
jobs/careers, life experiences, etc.)
Tips for Studying Psychology
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SQ3R Study Method:
Survey (Pre-read unit; scan headings)
 Question (Think about what unit will contain)
 Read (Read unit)
 Rehearse (Think about what you have read)
 Review (Read over notes you have taken; revisit unit)
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Tips for Academic Success
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Tips for Academic Success:
Distribute your study time
 Learn to think critically
 In class, listen actively
 Over-learn
 Be a smart test-taker
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Psychology: Fact or Falsehood
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Task:
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Complete “Psychology’s Purpose” (Handout P2)10-Question True/False Quiz