Quick overview of Periodic Table
use 1st (9:00)
Periodic Table (29:00, start at 19:00)
Early Tries at Organizing Elements
Up to the 1800’ s scientists were busy trying to discover
Not much thought was given to how they should be
organized, so elements were just listed alphabetically.
Some scientists thought the elements might be
classified by color.
Some thought by taste but then found that many were
Because scientists liked to measure things, they were
able to measure the atomic weight.
ALONG COMES MENDELEEV
He placed the name of an element on a piece of paper
along with its known properties.
Then he began to arrange the cards, keeping in mind
that atomic mass and properties were very important.
By 1871 he had all elements arranged and came up with
If elements are arranged
according to their atomic mass a
pattern can be seen in which
similar properties occur
Sometimes when arranging he would come
to a place in which no element would fit. So
he decided to leave it blank thinking that
this might be a place for an element that
had yet to be discovered.
He could also predict the properties of the
new element by looking at the properties of
the known elements that were above and
below the unknown element.
Families on the Periodic Table
Elements on the periodic table can be grouped into
families based on their chemical properties.
Each family has a specific name to differentiate it
from the other families in the periodic table.
Elements in each family
react differently with
The elements in a group have the same number of
electrons in their outer orbit.
They tend to form ions by gaining or losing the same
number of electrons
Arrangements of elements in order of increasing
atomic number such that the elements show related
The periodic table arranges elements by:
-vertical columns called groups- group number tells
the number of electrons in the outermost shell,
(ie. the number of valence electrons). There are 18
-horizontal rows called periods- period tells the
number of shells or energy level. There are 7 periods.
Hydrogen is not a member, it is a
1 electron in the outer shell
Soft and silvery metals
Extremely reactive, esp. with water
because outer orbital shell has only
one electron (unstable arrangement)
Found in nature only as compounds
Hydrogen is a unique
Like the alkali metals
it has only one
electron in its outer
It has little else in
common with the
alkali metals: it is a
colourless , odourless,
ALKALINE EARTH METALS
2 electrons in the
Reactive, but less
than Alkali metals
Groups in the middle
Good conductors of heat
Some are used for
The transition metals are
able to put up to 32
electrons in their second
to last shell.
Can bond with many
elements in a variety of
3 electrons in the
Most are metals
Boron is a
4 electrons in the
metalloids, and a
5 electrons in the
Can share electrons
to form compounds
6 electrons in the
7 electrons in the outer
All are non-metals
Are often bonded with
elements from Group 1
Exist as gases
8 electrons in the outer shell
Helium (He) has only 2
electrons in the outer shell =
Not reactive with other
elements,(inert) they almost
never form chemical
compounds with other
The lack of reactivity of noble gases is explained by
their electronic structure.
Their outer orbits are filled.
They do not react with other atoms because they
already have a stable arrangement of electrons.
The 3 Sections:
Metals, Non-metals, and Metaloids ( the elements: chemistry
lesson 25:00, stop at 19:00)
Characteristics of Metals
- Metals are good conductor of heat and electricity.
- Metals are shinny and ductile (stretchable)
- Metals are malleable (can be pounded into thin
- A chemical property of metal is its reaction with
water which results in corrosion.
Characteristics of Non-metals
- Non-metals are poor conductors of heat and
- Non-metals are not ductile or malleable.
- Solid non-metals are brittle and break easily.
- They are dull.
- Many non-metals are gases.
Characteristics of Metalloids
Are elements that possess both metallic and
Not strictly a group themselves, they are found on the
right side of the periodic table, on both sides of the
zigzag line that divides the metals and the nonmetals.
- Metalloids have properties of both metals and non-
- They are solids that can be shinny or dull.
- They conduct heat and electricity better than nonmetals but not as well as metals.
- They are ductile and malleable.
Rare Earth Metals
silver, silverywhite, or gray
Rows on the Periodic Table
The groups of elements- the columns in the periodic
table -have similar physical and chemical properties.
These horizontal rows of elements are called periods.
The first period contains two elements: hydrogen and
The second period contains eight elements, starting
with lithium and ending with neon.
As you go from left to right within a row, the atomic
number increases and the elements gradually change
from metallic to nonmetallic.
Atomic radius – size of an atom
Increases down a group – more shells, electrons
added further from nucleus
Increases down a group
Decreases across a period
Cations (positively-charged ions)
Cations are smaller than their parent atom because the
same number of protons in the nucleus pulls on less
Metals commonly become cations.
Anions (negative ions)
Anions are larger than their parent atom because the
same number of protons in the nucleus pulls on more
Ionic Radius / Atomic Radius
atomic radius is the radius of the atom when it's in
ionic radius is the radius of the atom when it losses or
gains electron ( become an ion)
So, for the very same element the number of electrons
in atom differs than the number of electrons of the ion
which might cause a change in the number of orbitals
and the radios.
Period - reactivity decreases as you go from left to right
across a period.
Group - reactivity increases as you go down a group
Why? The farther to the left and down the periodic chart
you go, the easier it is for electrons to be given or taken
away, resulting in higher reactivity.
Period - reactivity increases as you go from the left to
the right across a period.
Group - reactivity decreases as you go down the group.
Why? The farther right and up you go on the periodic
table, the higher the electronegativity, resulting in a
more vigorous exchange of electron.
Formulas Lesson 1: Writing Formulas For Binary Ionic
Compounds - YouTube
Space station tour
 First side of your sheet, color and label the groups.
List two things you know about the groups. (10)
Alkali Metals, Alkaline Earth Metals, Hydrogen, Transition
metals, Boron, Carbon, Nitrogen, Oxygen, Halogen, Noble
 Number the periods. List two things you know
about the periods.
 Second side of your sheet, neatly shade the areas
of the table that contain metals, non-metals, and
 Label each.
 List the characteristics of each on the sheet