Periodic Table

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Transcript Periodic Table

Unit : Periodic Table
Elements and their
Properties
Periodic- regular repeating pattern
I. Metals


Found on left side of table
Majority of elements on table
Properties of Metals

solid at room temp
– (except Hg)
Properties of Metals:

Conduct heat and electricity

Luster  reflect light well (shiny)
Properties of Metals:

Malleable – can be hammered or rolled into
sheets; Capable of being shaped or formed
Properties of Metals:


Ductile – can be
drawn into wires
Tend to lose or
give up outer
electrons
 form positive ions
Alkali Metals - Group #1
1 valence electron
 softer and more reactive
than other metals
 especially with oxygen
and water

Alkali Metals:

Don’t occur naturally in elemental
form
– usually in compound form
Flame test:
Li  crimson
Na  Yellow Orange
K  Violet
Alkaline Earth Metals  Group 2
Moderately
reactive
 not found
naturally in
elemental
form

Alkaline Earth Metals
Form bases when react with water
 2 valence electrons
 Flame test:

–
–
–
Calcium  dull red
Mg  Bright white flash
Strontium –-> bright red
Barium –-> dull yellowish green
Transition Metals  Groups 3-12

Often occur in nature as uncombined elements
Transition Metals:

Typically form colored
compounds – Cr found
in rubies and emeralds
Transition Metals
 Iron
triad
iron, cobalt, nickel
– Only elements
known to create
magnetic field
–
Iron
most widely
used of all
metals
– main
ingredient in
steel
– found in
hemoglobin
–
Coinage metals


Cu, Ag and Au –
Coinage metals since
once were commonly
used in coins
Cu – electrical wiring
Transition Metals
 Nobel
Metals –
– Highly
– Ag,
Os
resistant to corrosion
Au, Hg, Pt, Pd, Ir, Rh, Ru,
Inner Transition Metals


located at bottom of table
** Called “Rare Earth Elements”
Rare Earth Elements


Lanthanide Series –
includes Lanthanum
(La)
Actinide Series –
includes Actinum (Ac)
–
–
All are radioactive, and
unstable
Uranium and Plutonium
are best known  Nuclear
power
Transuranic Chemical
Elements
# 93  until the
end
 all synthetic
(manmade)
 usually disintegrate
quickly

Other Metals

Includes Al, Ga, In, Sn, Tl, Pb, Bi
Lead – toxic, no longer in paint and fuel
II.

Nonmetals
Right upper hand corner of table
Properties of nonmetals


Usually gases or brittle solids at RT
Usually Dull Appearance
Properties of Nonmetals



Not Malleable or ductile
Usually Poor Conductors
Tend to gain or share
electrons when forming
bonds  form negative
ions
Hydrogen



Hindenburg
Most abundant element in universe
Diatomic molecule – two atoms of the same
element bonded together
Highly reactive element found mostly on Earth
as part of water compound
Halogens
Group 17 (have 7
valence electrons)
 A salt forms when a
halogen forms bond
with a metal


Fluorine – in toothpaste
Chlorine

Cl – disinfectant and
bleach
–
(most abundant Halogen)
Noble Gases (or Inert gases )


Group 18
exist as isolated, stable atoms, normally
unreactive - are found in Elemental form
Noble Gases


Helium – used in blimps and balloons
Neon, Argon and Krypton – used in lights
III.



Metalloids
On either side of zigzag line
Have some metallic
and nonmetallic
properties
Partial Conduction
gives them
semiconductor
characteristics
What is an Allotrope?



Carbon – found in coal, oil, natural gas and
foods
All organic compounds contain carbon, but not
all compounds are organic
Has 3 allotropes Same element with different
molecular structures:
1. Graphite
2. Diamond
3. Buckminsterfullerene (“Bucky Balls”)
1. Graphite

2. Diamond
3. Buckminsterfullerene
(“Bucky Balls”)
Carbon 60 molecule
IV. Periodic Properties of Elements

Electron Affinity –
–
elements ablilty to attract an
electron to it, increases left to
right on table
Ionization Energy (IE)




The amount of energy
required to remove an
electron from an atom
Easy to remove electron
from metals  Low IE,
Very hard to remove
electron from nonmetal 
High IE
IE increases as move left to
right on table
Atomic
Size- How
large
atom is
Atomic Size- How large atom is





“atomic radii”
Decrease left to right across a period
More electrons on energy level stronger
attraction between nucleus and the electrons
Smaller left to right on table
Increases down a family because add an
energy level as move down
Metallic Nature


elements less metallic as go left to right across
table
increases as go down a family