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Biology Review L.14.3 – Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells
Animal and Plant Cells, Cell Transport
Compare and contrast the general structures of plant and animal cells.
Compare and contrast the general structures of prokaryotic and
eukaryotic cells
• Compare and/or contrast the structures found in
plant cells and in animal cells.
• Compare and/or contrast the structures found in
prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
• Describe how structures in cells are directly
related to their function in the cell.
• Explain the role of the cell membrane during
active and passive transport
How do you differentiate between an
animal cell and a plant cell?
• Plant cells have:
– Chloroplasts
– Large Vacuole
– Cell Wall
• Animal
– No cell wall or chloroplasts
• Both Plant and Animal
– Eukaryotic
How do you differentiate between a
prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell?
• Prokaryotic
▫ No nucleus
▫ Bacteria
▫ ONLY unicellular
• Eukaryotic
Has a nucleus
Any organism EXCEPT bacteria
Uni- or Multicellular
Membrane bound organelles
• Both Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic
Cell Membrane
How do cell structures support cell
• Every cell organelle has a specific function.
• There are some similarities between
prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Which of the
following structures is found in both
prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells?
• A. lysosome
• B. mitochondrion
• C. nucleus
• D. ribosome
• Which cell structure is correctly paired
with its primary function?
• A. ribosome - protein synthesis
• B. mitochondrion - movement
• C. vacuole - cell division
• D. nucleus - storage of nutrients
Which of the following structure is
where cellular respiration occurs in the
cell below?
How does the cell membrane support
cells in getting needed nutrients
• A cell membrane is semi-permeable. It allows
certain nutrients to flow in and out of the cell.
This is possible through active or passive
– Active Transport- Requires energy (ATP)
– Passive Transport- Does not require energy
• Ex: Osmosis
• Diffusion
• Facilitated Diffusion
• Cells need to bring in molecules to carry out
cellular processes. Often, this requires moving
the molecules across the cell membrane
against the concentration gradient. How do
these molecules get into the cell?
• A. passive transport by diffusion
• B. active transport using ATP
• C. passive transport by osmosis
• D. phagocytosis
• A person with swollen gums rinses his mouth
with warm salt water, and the swelling decreases.
Which of the following has occurred?
• A. The swollen gums have absorbed the
saltwater solution.
• B. The saltwater solution lowers the
temperature of the water in the gums.
• C. The salt in the solution has moved against the
concentration gradient.
• D. The water in the gums has moved out due to
the high concentration of salt in the solution.
• The cell membrane of the red blood cell will
allow water, oxygen, and carbon dioxide to
pass through. Because other substances are
blocked from entering, this membrane is
• A. perforated
• B. semi-permeable
• C. non-conductive
• D. permeable
Biology Review L.18.9 – Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration
Explain the interrelated nature of photosynthesis and cellular
• Explain how reactants and products of photosynthesis are
used as reactants for cellular respiration and vice versa.
• Explain how photosynthesis stores energy and cellular
respiration releases energy.
• Identify the reactants, products and/or the basic function of
• Identify the reactants, products, and/or the basic functions of
aerobic and anaerobic cellular respiration.
• Connect the role of ATP to energy transfers within the cell.
• Discuss the role of anaerobic respiration in living things.
How do the processes of photosynthesis
and cellular respiration form a cycle?
• The products of
photosynthesis are
the reactants in
cellular respiration
and vice versa.
How does photosynthesis create the food
that is used for energy in cellular
• Photosynthesis
creates glucose
that is used in the
process of cellular
respiration to
make energy
What are the products and reactants of
photosynthesis?(give equation)
• CO2 + H2O  C6H12O6 +O2
• Carbon Dioxide + Water Glucose + Oxygen
▫ Needs Sunlight
▫ Occurs in chloroplast
What are the products and reactants of
cellular respiration?(give equation)
• C6H12O6 +O2  CO2 + H2O (ATP is released)
• Glucose + Oxygen  Carbon Dioxide + Water (ATP
is released)
– Occurs in mitochondria
What is the difference between aerobic
and anaerobic respiration?
• Aerobic Respiration
– Making ATP in the presence of oxygen
– Makes more ATP
• Anaerobic Respiration
– Making ATP in the without of oxygen
– Create Lactic Acid (OUCH!)
– Makes less ATP
What is the role of ATP in energy transfer?
• ATP – has 3
phosphates, it loses a
phosphate and
releases energy for
• ADP- has 2
phosphates, gains a
phosphate from food
and recharges energy.
• How are cellular respiration and photosynthesis
related, in terms of energy?
• A. The energy captured in photosynthesis is
used to power cellular respiration.
• B. The energy transformed in cellular respiration
is used to power photosynthesis.
• C. Photosynthesis and respiration perform the
same task in terms of energy transformation.
• D. Energy is not involved in either
photosynthesis or cellular respiration.
• Two different species of bacteria are examined.
Scientists find that species X always produces CO2
and H2O during cellular respiration. Species Y
always produces ethyl alcohol and CO2. Which
conclusion can be made from these
• A. Only species Y is aerobic.
• B. Only species Y is anaerobic.
• C. Both species X and Y are aerobic.
• D. Both species X and Y are anaerobic.
• 1. Which gas is removed from the
atmosphere during photosynthesis?
• A. hydrogen
• B. oxygen
• C. nitrogen
• D. carbon dioxide