Introduction to the Periodic Table

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Transcript Introduction to the Periodic Table

Introduction to the
Periodic Table
Atomic Number ●
Symbol ● Atomic
Weight
I am Dmitri Mendeleev!
I made the PERIODIC TABLE !
What is the PERIODIC TABLE?
o
Shows all known
elements in the universe
o
Organizes the elements
by chemical properties
How else is it organized??
 Mendeleev
first arranged the elements
by atomic mass.
 But he noticed there was something still
not quite right about it.
 Now, the periodic table
is arranged by atomic
numbers.
How do you read the
PERIODIC TABLE?
What is the ATOMIC NUMBER?
o
The number of protons found in
the nucleus of an atom
Also…
 If
it is a neutral atom (not an ION)
the atomic number will also tell you
the number of electrons!
What is the SYMBOL?
o
An abbreviation of the element
name
What is the ATOMIC MASS?
o
The average
mass of the
atoms of a
given element
How do I find the number of protons
and electrons in an atom of an element
using the periodic table?
o
# of PROTONS
= ATOMIC NUMBER
o
# of ELECTRONS = # PROTONS (neutral
atom)
Now you are almost as smart as
I am!
But not as handsome!
Man, I look GOOD!
Periodic Table General Info
Parts of the Periodic Table
 The
periodic table is divided into
groups and periods …
– GROUPS:
VERTICAL
COLUMNS
There are 18 groups
– PERIODS:
HORIZONTAL
ROWS
There are 7 periods
 Group
1
Special Group Names
– Alkali Metals
 Group
2
– Alkaline Earth
Metals
 Group
3-12
– Transition Metals
 Group
17
– Halogens
 Group
18
– Noble Gases
Inner Transition Metals on Bottom
(Lanthanides & Actinides)
How else is it organized?
 Metals:
– Found to the left of the staircase
 Non-metals:
– Found to the right of the staircase
 On
either side of the staircase are
elements having both metallic and nonmetallic properties
– Called metalloids
See the staircase??
Colour Code Your “Blank Outline”
Make a Legend!!!







Group 1 - Alkali
Metals
Group 2 –
Alkaline Earth
Metals
Group 3-12 –
Transition
Metals
Group 17 –
Halogens
Group 18 - Noble Gases
Other metals – left of staircase
Other non-metals – right of staircase
Properties of…
 METALS
– Conduct electricity
– Malleable:
 Can
be pounded into a thin sheet
– Ductile
 Can
be drawn into wires
– Solid at room temperature
 Except
Hg
Properties of…
 NON-METALS
– Do not conduct electricity
– Brittle
 If
solid
– Non-ductile
– Solids, liquids or gases at room
temperature
Properties of…
 Metalloids
– Have both metallic and
non-metallic properties
– Ex.
 Silicon
conducts electricity but is
otherwise like non-metals
– Include: B, Si, Ge, As, Sb, Te, At
Any Questions so far?
Textbook Task
 Use
notes and textbook (page 96)
 Complete:
– #12 to 21 on page 97