Transcript Periodic Table
Periodic table is arranged according to
increasing atomic number by Henry Moseley.
Originally arranged by order of increasing
atomic mass by Demetri Mendelev.
The word “periodic” means pattern. Chemical
and physical of atoms properties are a function
of atomic number – The Periodic Law.
Electron donors (in ionic bonds)
Will only be found in ionic bonds not covalent
Conduct heat and electricity
Metals are found to the far left of the periodic
table(before staircase) – the further left the
more metallic in nature.
Electron acceptors (negative charge in ionic
Non metals are found to the far right of the
Non –metal to non-metal bonding is covalent.
Group 1- Alkali Earth Metals
Group2- Alkaline Earth Metals
Group3-12 – Transition Metals
Post Transition Metals
Group 13- Boron Group
Group 14- Carbon Group
Group 16- Oxygen group
Group 17- Halogen group
Group 18- Noble gases
Metalloid- elements with both metallic and
Inner transition metals- are located in the f
subshell. Lanthanide series(4f) and actinide series(
Hydrogen - contains the element hydrogen and
has a +1 and -1 charge
Noble gases are inactive gases
Halogen group- is the most active non metal group
Alkali Metals- are the most active metal group.
Also known as the rule of 8:
Atoms want the outer most shell to be completely
For the s and p blocks this means a valence of 8 (or 2)
They will react in a way either ionically or covalently
to acquire that valence of 8.
In nature because of the octet rule you never
find elements by themselves only in
compounds except for noble gases. These are
called diatomic elements H2, N2 , O2, F2, Cl2,
Group 14: +4 or – 4
Group 15: -3
Group 16: -2
Group 17: -1
Group 18: 0
Transition (and Post-Transition) Metals – will have
variable oxidation states. Not as predictable as the
main group elements (know the common ones Fe,
Cu, Cr, Pb, Sn).
Valence electrons- total electrons in the outer
Core electrons- everything else except valence
Groups- goes from top to bottom on the
Periods- goes from left to right on the periodic
As you add more protons the pull of the
nucleus gets stronger as felt by the valence
Effective nuclear charge increases as you go
across the periodic table from left to right.
It decreases as you go down the periodic table
from top to bottom because of the increase in
valence electron distance and electron
Example: Let’s compare Li and F
The more core electrons there are the less of a
pull the valence electrons will feel from the
Shielding stays constant as you go across the
periodic table (left to right) and increases as
you down the periodic table.
Example: Let’s compare Li and Cs
Size of the atom.
As you go from left to right the atomic radius
decreases because of the stronger effective
As you go from top to bottom the atomic
radius increases because of the shielding &
As you go down the group you are adding
more energy levels and this increases the size
of the atom.
Energy needed to remove the outermost
As you go from left to right on the periodic
table the ionization energy increases because of
stronger effective nuclear charge.
As you go from top to bottom the ionization
energy decreases because of more electron
shielding & an increase in the distance of the
Example: Put in order of increasing ionization
energy, Be, Li, & F
Measurement of the ability of an atom to attarct
As you go from top to bottom the
electronegativity decreases because of
shielding and distance of valence.
As you go from left to right the
electronegativity increases because of effective