Sustainable Development, a New Challenge for the Crystal Glass

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Transcript Sustainable Development, a New Challenge for the Crystal Glass

SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPEMENT, A NEW
CHALLENGE FOR THE CRYSTAL
L’IMPACT
GLASS INDUSTRY
ENVIRONNEMENTAL
XV ICF TECHNICAL EXCHANGE CONFERENCE
DANS
LE SECTEUR
Arques/St
Omer, 11-14 October 2003
VERRIER
Department name in 14 pt Arial Bold
Place and date in 14 pt Arial Italic
Guy Tackels
[email protected]
CONTENTS
Crystal Glass industry and Sustainable
Development
European legislation and IPPC Directive
Climate Change and CO2 Emission Trading
Sustainable Development
- First definition in Brundtland report (1987) :
> “A development which meets the needs of the present
without compromising the ability of future generations to
meet their own needs”
-More poetic definition:
> “We do not inherit this world from our ancestors, we
borrow it from our children”
Sustainable development : some concrete links to
enrich the economic approach by environmental
and social concerns
Development of tools able to measure the environmental
impact of industry : ecologic print, carbon balance,
exchanges efficiency,…
R&D for GHG reduction and energy saving
Ethical involvement of industry
Ecologic design and industrial ecology (lightening)
Decoupling economic growth and use of non renewable
resources
Decoupling economic growth and use of energy
Waste management and recycling (cullet recycling)
Etc…
European legislation
IPPC Directive (Integrated Pollution Prevention
and Control)
> BAT (Best Available Techniques)
> BREF (BAT REFerence Document)
NEC Directive (National Emission Ceilings) :
multi-pollutants and multi-effects
SOx, NOx, NMVOC, NH3
Acidification, eutrophication, tropospheric
ozone
To be revised in 2004. In practice, strong
pressure to reduce pollution in 2010.
European legislation (2)
Directive on air quality (dust, SO2, NOx, Pb)
and daughter directive relating to heavy metals
(arsenic, cadmium, mercury, nickel) and PAH
EU Chemical policy (REACH)
Directive on packaging and packaging waste
 Health and safety (OEL for lead in air/blood,
noise and vibrations, crystalline silica, use of
Boron,…)
Emission Trading (to be developed in next
section)
Etc…
CRYSTAL GLASS and ENVIRONMENT:
IPPC Implementation
Size of sites can be very diverse. Some
installations are below the threshold level of IPPC
(20 t/j)
Some BAT’s described in the BREF are not
applicable to Domestic and Crystal Glass.
Specificities: Special glass, use of lead,
oxidation by nitrates, acid polishing (F),
Emission concentration can be high but flow is
generally low
IPPC BAT Reference levels for
Domestic and Crystal Glass (1)
Dust : 5-30 mg/Nm3
 Bag filters and Electrostatic Precipitators
 Electric melting (Lead crystal)
NOx : 500-700 mg/Nm3 (target)
 Primary measures
 Electric furnaces
 Oxy-fuel furnaces
 Secondary measures difficult to apply (SCR, SNCR,
Reburning)
 Special attention to nitrates (1500 mg/Nm3)
IPPC BAT Reference levels for
Domestic and Crystal Glass (2)
SOx : 200-500 mg/Nm3 (gas), 500-1300
mg/Nm3 (oil firing)
 Choice of fuel (oil, gas, mixed fuel)
 Action on sulphate when used
 Acid gas treatments
 Recycling, elimination or valorisation of dust issued
from acid gases treatments
Cost of reducing NOx, dust and acid gas according to Glass BREF
16
14
Low-NOx Combustion
SCR
SNCR
Reburning & 3R
Oxy-Fuel
SCR+filter
Filter+acid gas treatment
Euro per ton of molten glass
12
10
8
6
4
2
0
50
100
300
Pull in tons per day
450
600
CLIMATE CHANGE
Climate Change : a reality?
 Global consensus that climate change is a significant threat
to the world and “that the changes are mostly due to human
activities”(IPCC)
Evidence that “climate changes are occurring”and that costs
associated to damages are considerable
Consensus that precaution is needed
Some EU member states (F, D, UK, S) have politically
committed to reduction targets of up to 60% until 2050 (50% in
France)
Kyoto Protocol is a modest step; the ultimate agreement to
achieve long term targets still needs to be designed
CLIMATE CHANGE
Six greenhouse gases : CO2, CH4,
N2O, HFC, PFC, SF6
In the glass industry, only CO2 is
concerned
The rules at world level (Protocols)
Kyoto protocol on Greenhouse effect
> Ratified by EU and countries of EU
> Flexibility mechanisms ( Emission trading,
Joint Implementation, Clean Development
Mechanism)
> GHG reduction target in 2010 :
• European Union : -8% of 1990 level
• At Member State level : burden-sharing
agreement
Burden-Sharing Agreement for GHG
Member State
Belgium
France
GHG evolution for 1990-2010 period
- 7,5%
0
Germany
- 21%
Ireland
+ 13%
Italy
- 6,5%
Netherlands
- 6%
Portugal
+ 27%
Spain
+ 15 %
Sweden
United Kingdom
+ 4%
- 12,5%
Kyoto Protocol and EU Legislation
« Emission Trading » Directive on exchanges of
greenhouse gases emission allowances
 Adopted by EU Parliament on 2 July 2003 and
accepted by the Council on 22 July 2003
 Will apply on 1st January 2005
 NPA : Allowances must be fixed and accepted
by the Commission on 31 March 2004
 Threshold value for glass industry : 20 t/d of
melted glass per installation i.e. less than
10.000 tonnes of CO2 per year
 Process emissions included
How does ET reduce costs :
First case : no Emission Trading
Source A
Source B
Total
Current
emissions
50 000 t
100 000 t
150 000 t
Required
reduction 10%
5 000 t
10 000 t
15 000 t
Absolute target
45 000 t
90 000 t
135 000 t
Cost per ton
2 €/t
5 €/t
Compliance cost
with conventional
regulation
10 000 €
50 000 €
60 000 €
Second case : With Emission Trading
Source A
Source B
Total
Allowance allocation
45 000 t
90 000 t
135 000 t
Real reduction
10 000 t
5 000 t
15 000 t
Reduction cost with ET
20 000 €
25 000 €
45 000 €
Allowance sold
5 000 t
none
Allowance purchased
none
5 000 t
Allowance Price
3,5 €/t
3,5 €/t
Revenue from sale or
17 500 €
17 500 €
2 500 €
42 500 €
45 000 €
i.o.10 000 €
i.o. 50 000 €
i.o. 60 000 €
implemented
Cost of purchasing
Compliance cost
Forms of emission trading
A « Cap and Trade » programme typically
establishes an absolute limit on total emissions in
a given period and distributes allowances equal to
the limit prior to the start of the period.
 Key point : allowances allocation (free or by auction)
 « Baseline and credit » typically define a
baseline that varies with output and issue credits
at the end of the period if a participant’s actual
emissions are below its baseline.
REPORTING and VERIFICATION
Emission data
All the data will be treated in the same way. An
Excel programme has been developed at
European level (CPIV). The method is inspired
from the method used by the cement industry in
the scope of WBCSD and GHG Protocol Initiative.
CO2 REPORTING
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
41b
42
42b
43
43b
44
44b
45
45b
46
46b
47
47b
48
48b
49
49b
49-tot
Glass production
Glass production (glass available for sale)
Glass output (melted glass)
Calculated production yield percentage
Glass cullet recycled ( internal + external )
Calculated glass cullet percentage
Internal cullet recycled
External cullet recycled
New glass output (melted glass - glass cullet recycled)
-
Glass raw materials producing CO2 (dry weight)
Limestone
chemical purity of limestone
Dolomite
chemical purity of dolomite
Sodium Carbonate
chemical purity of sodium carbonate
Coal
chemical purity of coal
Other raw material 1
chemical purity of raw material Other raw material 1
Other raw material 2
chemical purity of raw material Other raw material 2
Other raw material 3
chemical purity of raw material Other raw material 3
Other raw material 4
chemical purity of raw material Other raw material 4
Batch (not already accounted for in Items 41 to 48)
chemical purity of Batch (not already accounted for in Items 41 to 48)
CO2 emissions from raw materials
t/y
t/y
%
t/y
%
t/y
t/y
t/y
t/y
%
t/y
%
t/y
%
t/y
%
t/y
%
t/y
%
t/y
%
t/y
%
t/y
%
t CO2 /y
1990
500000
600000
83%
115000
19%
100000
15000
485000
1991
510000
610000
84%
112500
18%
110000
2500
497500
1992
520000
590000
88%
94000
16%
90000
4000
496000
1990
5000
70000
9000
10
0
0
0
0
400000
115361
1991
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
614198
116698
1992
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
612346
116346
CONCLUSIONS
The BREF document is considered as a good
document and the Domestic and Crystal glass sector
made a good work to take into account their
specificities.
However, in the near future, IPPC directive will
influence strongly the local environmental
constraints. Tighter regulations will apply.
Today, we observe that implementation is not
homogeneous across Europe and we recommend to
defend carefully the interests of Domestic and Crystal
glass sector at national and local level
Conclusions (2)
Climate Change is now a reality
The reduction of CO2 emissions is already a
political target in many member states of EU.
Commitments to reduction targets of up to 60% until
2050.
The flexibility mechanisms (ET) are only tools to
reduce the costs. However, in practice, it can be
foreseen that energy and CO2 related costs will
increase substantially in the future
Crystal glass installations are not always submitted
to the ET directive but everybody will have to reduce
CO2 emissions. For instance obligation of means in
France.
Due to low absolute CO2 emissions level, the cost of
trading could be high.
Conclusions (3)
Short term CO2 reductions are very limited for
economic and technical reasons.
Energy savings and CO2 reductions are already
permanent concerns in glass manufacture. From
now, top priority must be given to this matter
Double financial burden imposed to industry :
 Costs of CO2 emission reduction
 Increased energy costs generated by the system
A last word on Life Cycle Analysis
of glass products
Glass, for some applications, allows substantial
energy savings or CO2 reductions.
> Low Emissivity glazing
> Mineral wools
> Reinforcement applications ( cars, wind power)
Using glass products, CO2 reduction potential is
very big. Far bigger than the emissions required
for the total glass industry production.
What about Crystal Glass Industry?
A last word…
Crystal Glass belongs to what is often called the 4th
pillar of the SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT :
ART and CULTURE
A sustainable world can’t exist without
CRYSTAL !