Lecture 6- Energy

download report

Transcript Lecture 6- Energy

Natural resources
Energy
Energy resources
Estimated Natural Gas Reserves (2007)
Figure illustrates the relative levels of natural gas
production and consumption in various global
regions and indicates that the regions which rely
heaviest on inter-regional gas imports are Asia
and Europe. In North America, the United States
and Mexico are also net importers, but as one of
the world's largest natural gas producing regions,
historical North American LNG imports have been
relatively small compared to Asia and Europe.
World Production and
Consumption of Natural
Gas (2007)
Growing energy needs
Energy utilization
world over and
projected demand
http://edro.wordpress.com/energy/286w/
Types of energy
Renewable
Non-renewable
Sustainable
Advantages:
Advantages:
Most concentrated
Storage
Reliable supply
Low cost per unit
Advantages:
Most reliable
Energy quantity
Emissions
Raw material
Disadvantages:
Pollution
Availability
Running cost
Limited resource
Disadvantages:
Risks
Disposal costs
Capital investment
Examples:
Fossil fuels
Examples:
Nuclear power
Availability
Low running cost
Decentralized
production
Low pollution
Disadvantages:
Reliability
Quantity
Storage
Per unit cost
Examples:
Hydropower, Biomass,
Wind, Solar
Energy reserves
Coal
– Asia – largest
– World – 300 yrs
Oil
– <50 yrs
Natural gas
– <100 yrs
Nuclear
– Capacity
– Infinite in practical terms
U-B
Th – K,TN
– BARC
– Concerns
Who has it all....?
Up to 70% reserves
OPEC - 1960
– The Organization of the Petroleum Exporting
Countries
– A permanent intergovernmental organization 12 oil producing and exporting countries
Member countries from
– America, Asia and Africa
Algeria, Angola, Ecuador, the Islamic Republic of
Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Libya, Nigeria, Qatar, Saudi
Arabia, United Arab Emirates & Venezuela.
INDIAN SCENARIO
Coal
Oil
Natural gas
Hydro
Nuclear
Status of Indian Energy
Coal
– Reserve - 58600 million tonnes
Oil
– The 4th largest oil consumer in the world.
– Has only 0.5% of the world’s total oil reserves
while its share in total world’s production is
0.9%
– Depends to the extent of 75% on imported oil
– Imports in single year – (2008-09) - 128.151MMT
crude oil worth for US$ 75701 Million.
Natural Gas
– Reserves - 1055 Billion cubic meters (0.6% of
world’s proven reserves).
According to UNESCAP 2009 data for INDIA
United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific
Installed power generation capacity – 1,47,402.81 MW.
The country’s power deficit today - 20,000 MW
MW power
Coal
Gas
Diesel
% share
Nuclear
Hydro
60
Other renewable sources
50
40
30
% share
20
10
0
Coal
Gas
Diesel
Nuclear
Hydro
Other
renewable
sources
Non-renewable energy utilization - Environmental impacts
During Energy production: extraction to supply
– Coal mining
– Oil spills
– On-site explosions at drilling sites, oil riggs
During Energy utilization: pollution and climate change
– Burning gasoline releases hazardous gases and fumes into the air
– release particles - that can pollute the air, water, and land
– Upsets Earth’s “carbon budget,” as they release carbon dioxide into the
atmosphere.
– Accelerate “greenhouse effect.”
Burning petroleum release CO2, CO, SO2, NOx and volatile organic
compounds (VOC) which contribute to smog (ground level ozone)
Particulate matter (PM) which contributes to asthma and chronic bronchitis
in humans
Lead and various air toxins such as benzene, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde,
and 1,3-butadiene which also emitted when some types of petroleum are
burned, all of which come with significant human health hazards
Fuel exploring and drilling disturbs natural habitats on land and in the sea
The Coal
concern
Fly-ash
Fly ash utilization
programs:
TIFAC
Fly ash generation
http://cpcbenvis.nic.in/annualreport04-05/ar2004-ch10.htm
ASH SLURRY
DISPOSAL SYSTEM
Slurry formed by mixing water into Bottom Ash, Coarse and Fly ash is pumped to
Ash pond by lean phase or dense phase slurry pumping.
Lean phase slurry disposal system:
Ash to Water ratio by weight 1:4, pumping by Centrifugal Pumps.
High Density / Concentration Slurry Disposal:
Ash to Water ratio of 1:0.5 Pumped using positive displacement – Reciprocating
Pumps (Piston, Piston Diaphragm or Flushed Plunger type)
Ash Slurry Disposal pipeline.
Ash Slurry Pump Series.
Ash, after mixing with water, is transferred to Ash Slurry Sump for pumping to Ash
pond.
Depending upon the distance of ash pond numbers of pumps are connected in
series.
The pumps are provided with highly abrasion resistant material of construction for
components which are coming in contact with Ash Slurry and one subjected to
high wear and tear.
For safe handling of pumps during maintenance proper handling facilities such as
E.O.T. Crane, Semi E.O.T. Crane, Hand operated crane, as may be required, are
provided.
Ash in agriculture
It improves permeability status of soil
Improves fertility status of soil (soil health) / crop yield
Improves soil texture
Reduces bulk density of soil
Improves water holding capacity / porosity
Optimizes pH value
Improves soil aeration
Reduces crust formation
Provides micro nutrients like Fe, Zn, Cu, Mo, B, Mn, etc.
Provides macro nutrients like K, P, Ca, Mg, S etc.
Works as a part substitute of gypsum for reclamation of saline alkali soil and lime for reclamation of
acidic soils
Surface cover of bio reclaimed vegetated ash pond get stabilized and can be used as recreational park
Ash ponds provides suitable conditions and essential nutrients for plant growth, helps improve the
economic condition of local inhabitants
Works as a liming agent
Helps in early maturity of crop
Improves the nutritional quality of food crop
Reduces pest incidence
Conserves plant nutrients / water
Carry over of trace & heavy metals & radioactivity is insignificant
Crops grown on fly ash amended soil are safe for human consumption & groundwater quality is not
affected.
Keeping the above important findings in view, pond ash at a dose of 30-50 tonne per hectare on one time
basis along
Ash bricks
Compressed at 4,000 psi and cured for 24 hours in a 150 °F (66 °C) steam
bath,
the bricks last for more than 100 freeze-thaw cycles.
Owing to the high concentration of calcium oxide in class C fly ash, the brick
is described as "self-cementing".
The manufacturing method saves energy, reduces mercury pollution, and
costs 20% less than traditional clay brick manufacturing.
Coal mining and problems
Water quality – Acid run-off and sedimentation from mine sites
contaminate waterways and can increase the costs of water
treatment systems..
Health & Safety Issues – Abandoned mine sites are froth with high
walls, open shafts, dilapidated mine structures and water-filled pits.
These hazards have contributed to numerous accidents and deaths,
and are especially dangerous for children who find these places
interesting to explore.
Economic problems – Abandoned mine lands are often found in
economically depressed areas.
Esthetic problems – Abandoned mine sites often have sparse
vegetation, stagnant water and many times used as illegal trash
dumps.
Fly ash: coal mine reclamation
An alkaline seal or fill material to contain acid forming materials and prevent the
formation of acid mine drainage.
An agricultural supplement to create artificial soil on abandoned mine lands where
native soils are not available.
A flowable fill that seals and stabilizes abandoned underground mines to prevent
subsidence and the production of acid mine drainage.
A construction material for dams where such materials are needed to create a
compact and durable base.
A non-toxic fill material for final pits within the spoil area to reduce reclamation
cost.
The benefits include improved water quality of lakes and streams, rapid reestablishment of wildlife populations and aquatic habitats, grass lands, and water
foul, stable long term land utilization, and increased land value.
Perhaps the most important reason to take a proactive reclamation approach is to
avoid future liability associated with acidic water discharges, erosion and sediment
pollution, subsidence, and other environmental pollution related potentials.
Global scenario
25% rise in consumption / decade
Energy security
– Ensuring the continuous availability of commercial energy at
competitive prices to support economic growth and meet our
energy needs with safe, clean and convenient forms of energy
Energy mix
The paradox of fossil fuels
The Earth summit
Kyoto protocol
The rising geopolitical battle
centered around energy security
“the Pentagon is itself one of the world's great
oil guzzlers, consuming 134 million barrels of
oil in 2005, as much as the entire nation of
Sweden.” by Michael Klare, Professor, Peace
and world security studies
Pentagon uses 0.3 million barrels oil / day
the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) is the
single-largest consumer of fuel in the world
:
April, 2006
Rio Summit, Earth Summit
The United Nations Conference on
Environment and Development (UNCED)
– Rio de Janeiro from June 3 to June 14, 1992.
– Participants: 172 governments, 108 heads of state,
2,400 representatives of (NGOs), 17,000 people
who had Consultative Status.
– Agenda-21-blue print for action.
– UNFCC
United Nations Framework
Convention on Climate Change
Kyoto protocol
The objective
– To achieve "stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations in the
atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic
interference with the climate system”
The treaty negotiated in Kyoto, Japan in December 1997
– Opened for signature on March 16, 1998,
– Closed on March 15, 1999.
– The agreement came into force on February 16, 2005
Total member countries / signatories
– Nov 2007-175  191 - As of July 2010  184 – Ratified prior to
Copenhagen  193 – Ratified currently Feb 2012
– India ratified in 2002
The agreement
– Under which industrialized countries will reduce their collective
emissions of greenhouse gases by 5.2% compared to the year
1990.
– The six greenhouse gases - carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide,
sulfur hexafluoride, hydrofluorocarbons, and perfluorocarbons
http://unfccc.int/kyoto_protocol/status_of_ratification/items/2613.php
Kyoto protocol
The issues addressed:
– Systematic scrutiny of patterns of production —
particularly the production of toxic components,
such as lead in gasoline, or poisonous waste
– Alternative sources of energy to replace the use
of fossil fuels which are linked to global climate
change
– New reliance on public transportation systems in
order to reduce vehicle emissions, congestion in
cities and the health problems caused by
polluted air and smog
– The growing scarcity of water
Important achievements
– Sets binding targets for 37 industrialized
countries and the European community for
reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions
– Agreements on
– Climate Change Convention
– "not carry out any activities on the lands of
indigenous peoples that would cause
environmental degradation or that would be
culturally inappropriate
National limitations
– European Union - 8% reductions
– US - 7%
– Japan - 6%
– Russia - 0%
Maximum beneficiaries
– Australia - 8%
– Iceland - 10%
Developing countries
– No numerical limitation
– Not the main contributors to the greenhouse gas
emissions during the pre-treaty industrialization
period.
– Share common (but differentiated) responsibility
Monitoring and reporting emissions
Monitoring emission targets
– Under the Protocol, country’s’ actual
emissions have to be monitored and
precise records have to be kept of
the trades carried out.
The Kyoto mechanisms are:
– Emissions trading – known as “the
carbon market"
– Clean development mechanism
(CDM)
– Joint implementation (JI)
The Intergovernmental Panel of Climate Change
Established by
– the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and the World
Meteorological Organization (WMO)
AIM:
– to provide the world with a clear scientific view on the current state of climate
change and its potential environmental and socio-economic consequences.
FEATURES & FUNCTIONS
– A scientific body.
– an intergovernmental body, and it is open to all member countries of UN and
WMO
– Reviews and assesses the most recent scientific, technical and socio-economic
information produced worldwide relevant to the understanding of climate change.
– Thousands of scientists from all over the world contribute to the work of the IPCC
on a voluntary basis. It does not conduct any research nor does it monitor climate
related data or parameters.
– The IPCC Bureau and Chairperson are also elected in the plenary sessions.
– The work of IPCC is policy-relevant and yet policy-neutral, never policyprescriptive.
Post Kyotoprotocol
Steps forward…
– Bali Action Plan (2007)
– Nairobi work programme
– National Adaptation Programmes of Action for least
developed countries
Or backward…?
– January 29 2002 - the new liberal/conservative Danish
government
– All R&D programmes, financial support, committees, government
agencies etc that for 20 years have been crucial in the
development of renewable energy will immediately be cancelled
or dissolved.
– The government will spend the money saved (20 million EURO)
on hospitals and senior citizens
UNFCC conference in Copenhagen, Denmark
December 7-18, 2009
HINT OF POSITIVENESS
– The BASIC group has emerged as a powerful force in
climate change negotiations
– A legally non-binding agreement is drawn up
– A limit for global temperature increase set at 20C
– Developed countries committed to provide financial
assistance up to $30 billion for the period 2010-2012
to aid in efforts of climate change for least developed
countries
– Incorporated punitive measures for those countries
that do not adhere to carbon emission targets
Copenhagen Accord – Behind closed doors….?
SOME POINTS OF THE ACCORD….
We underline that climate change is one of the greatest
challenges of our time. We emphasise our strong political will
to urgently combat climate change
We agree that deep cuts in global emissions are required
Adaptation to the adverse effects of climate change and the
potential impacts of response measures is a challenge faced by
all countries
We recognize the crucial role of reducing emission from
deforestation and forest degradation
Developing countries, especially those with low emitting
economies should be provided incentives to continue to
develop on a low emission pathway.
Scaled up, new and additional, predictable and adequate
funding as well as improved access shall be provided to
developing countries, in accordance with the relevant
provisions of the Convention
So is this what’s agreed upon………?
All is not well when it comes to climate change negotiations
United Nations Climate Change Conference
2010
– Cancún, Mexico
– Called for a large "Green Climate Fund", and a "Climate
Technology Centre" and network
2011
– Durban, South Africa,
– Legally binding deal comprising all countries, by
2015, to take effect in 2020.
– Creation of a Green Climate Fund (GCF) US$100 billion per year
India "will never be intimidated by any threat
or pressure” – Jayanthi Natarajan
…….“We have shown more flexibility than virtually any other country. But
equity is the centrepiece, it cannot be shifted. This is not about India.
Does fighting climate change mean we have to give up on equity? We
have agreed to protocol and legal instrument. What's the problem in
having one more option? India will never be intimidated by any threat or
any kind of pressure. What's this legal instrument? How do I give a blank
cheque? We're talking of livelihoods and sustainability here. I'm not
accusing anybody, but there are efforts to shift the (climate) problem to
countries that have not contributed to it. If that is done, we're willing to
reopen the entire Durban Package. We did not issue a threat. But are we
being made into a scapegoat? Please don't hold us hostage”…………..
USA, India & China
Source of renewable energy
Solar: Photo voltaic cells, Solar thermal. Solar air heating
Wind
– Denmark, California
India stands 3rd
Impacts
Geothermal
Hydro-electric
Marine
New RS
Biomass : quick growing crops
Hydrogen: fuel cells to produce: water, electricity
Alcohol
Alternative sources – Solar Energy
Sun -The ultimate source
– 75,000 X 1011 KW/DAY
– Cell-Module-Array
Photo voltaic cell
Solar cooker
Geothermal
– Magma
– Geothermal reserves
– Iceland, Japan, New zealand
Other untapped energy sources
1. Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion: OTEC – DOD,
India (Department of Ocean development)
2. Methyl hydrates
Ocean Thermal
Energy Conversion
(OTEC) uses the
temperature difference
between cooler deep
and warmer shallow or
surface ocean waters
to run a heat engine
and produce useful
work, usually in the
form of electricity.
However, the
temperature
differential is small and
this impacts the
economic feasibility of
ocean thermal energy
for electricity
generation.
Methyl hydrates (The Gas Resource
of the Future):
Methane hydrate is a cage-like lattice
of ice inside of which are trapped
molecules of methane, the chief
constituent of natural gas.
If methane hydrate is either warmed or
depressurized, it will revert back
to water and natural gas. When
brought to the earth's surface,
one cubic meter of gas hydrate
releases 164 cubic meters of
natural gas.
Research for Energy efficient technologies
–
Alternate Hydrogen Energy Centre (AHEC) -IIT, Roorkee
–
established by Ministry of Non-Conventional Energy Sources,
GOI in the year 1982
–
promotes power development through the integration of
renewable energy and through the development of Small Hydro
Power Technologies etc.
–
imparts training to the field personnels via short term & long
training courses in this thrust area field of renewable energy.
–
From 1989 Technical Education Deptt., UP Govt. maintains its
establishment on net deficit financing under Non Plan.
an apex technical institute in the field of small hydro power
development.
Areas of Research
Small Hydro Power Development
Power System Planning and Operation
Biomass Energy
Solar & Wind Energy
–
Fuel cells
Hydrogen fuel cell
Microbial fuel cell
Hydrogen cell
H2+O2=H2O+electricity
Like a battery
Recharge: with fuels
Less environment impact
Handling hydrogen
Microbial fuel cells
M. Potter was the first to perform work on the subject in 1911
a device that converts chemical energy to electrical energy by the
catalytic reaction of microorganisms
anode and cathode compartments separated by a cation (positively
charged ion) specific membrane.
anode compartment: fuel is oxidized by microorganisms, generating
CO2, electrons and protons.
Electrons are transferred to the cathode compartment through an
external electric circuit,
while protons are transferred to the cathode compartment through
the membrane.
Electrons and protons are consumed in the cathode compartment,
combining with oxygen to form water
Microbial fuel cells
Substrate
Anaerobic
fermentative
bacteria
Bacterial
metabolism
In situ
electrical
coupling
Biomass energy
Raw material: agricultural, forestry and agro-industrial
residues into electric power.
Biomass converted to energy in three ways: thermal
conversion, chemical conversion, and biochemical
conversion
traditional cook stoves with low efficiency
kerosene and wick lamps, for lighting
which emit smoke into kitchen, leads to low quality of life for
most rural women
– Fresh biomass
Denmark
– Urban waste
Japan
Biodiesel
vegetable oil- or animal fat-based diesel fuel
consisting of alkyl (methyl, propyl or ethyl) esters.
made by chemically reacting lipids (e.g., vegetable oil,
animal fat) with an alcohol producing fatty acid esters
Energy plantations / Energy farms - PETRO-PLANTS
– Jatropa, Acacia, Albizzia, Cassia, Ficus, Sunflower
Forms
– Liquid
Brazil (fibrous waste of sugar industry)
– Gaseous
Biodiesel
Process
Advantages
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
Clean
SO2
Cetane number
lubrication
Damage to Ozone layer
PAH reduction
Net zero carbon emissions
Negative effects:
– Clearing forest to farm
– Rising price of vegetable oil is causing problems
– Farmers may switch from producing food crops to producing biofuel crops to
make more money, even if the new crops are not edible.
– The law of supply and demand predicts that if fewer farmers are producing food
the price of food will rise. It may take some time,
Biodiesel
Blends : "B" factor to state the
amount of biodiesel in any fuel mix
–
–
–
–
100% biodiesel - referred to as B100
20% biodiesel, 80% petrodiesel - labeled B20
5% biodiesel, 95% petrodiesel - labeled B5
2% biodiesel, 98% petrodiesel - labeled B2
Biogas - Biogas:decentralised energy system
Anearobic digestion (Organic polymers)
Hydrolysis
Monomers
Acidogenesis
VFA’s, Acetate, Formate
Methanogenesis
Methane
sources:
– Agriculture waste (sugar cane- Brazil),
– Cow dung
CO2+CH4+H2S
Waste: fertilizer
Biogas
Biogas composition:
Methane-50-68%
CO2 – 25%
H2 - 5%
N2 -2-7%
O2 -0.1%
Floating Dome type Biogas Plant
Fixed Dome type Biogas Plant
Sustainable strategies
STE (Solar thermal energy)
technology for harnessing solar energy
for thermal energy (heat).)
– The solar challenger
– Mirrors/reflector energy
BIPV: Building-integrated
photovoltaics
– PV modules & arrays
Energy plantations
– JFM :Joint Forest Management :
partnerships between fringe
forest user groups and the
Forest Department
– Social forestry: management and
protection of forests and
afforestation on barren lands with
the purpose of helping in the
environmental, social and rural
development
– Agroforestry
Bharat Heavy Electronics Limited (BHEL)
The Electronics Division of BHEL where
the
Photovoltaic
modules
are
manufactured has been involved in the
design and manufacture of sophisticated
electronics and power semiconductors
since 1978. Based on this expertise, BHEL
commenced manufacturing of Solar
Photovoltaic cells and modules from 1983.
The Solar Cells and Solar PV Modules are
manufactured in the State of the Art
manufacturing line at Bangalore.
Indian Oil Corporation limited (IOCL)
Green Fuel Alternatives
Indian Oil is focussing on CNG
(compressed natural gas),
Autogas (LPG), ethanol
blended petrol, bio-diesel, and
Hydrogen energy.
A joint venture between Indian Oil and
Chhattisgarh Renewable Energy
Development Agency (CREDA) - Indian Oil –
CREDA Biofuels Ltd.
• Envisages production of 30,000 metric
tonnes (MT) of biodiesel per annum from
energy crop plantation on 30,000 hectare of
revenue wasteland.
• Energy crop plantations (Jatropha,
Pongamia etc.) on revenue wasteland in
various districts of Chhattisgarh.
Solar lantern
Integrated approach
Xinbu system
– Bioconversion of
organic & agricultural
wastes
– Cattle, fish pond,
biogas, domestic
needs
– Mushroom
cultivation:low-capital
technology ;
proteinaceous &
palatable
Measures taken by Indian government to
enhance Energy Security
The Integrated Energy Policy - Adopted in December 2008.
– To reliably meet the demand for energy services of all sectors including the
lifeline energy needs of vulnerable households in all parts of the country
with safe, clean and convenient energy at the least cost.
– Goal: To provide energy security to all.
Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission (JNNSM): Launched in November
2009.
– Policy framework for the deployment of 20,000 MW of solar power by
2022.
– Scale up off –grid solar applications by installing another 2,000 MW
capacity by 2022
– Aggressive R&D to reduce the cost and improve the over all performance.
National Mission for Enhanced Energy Efficiency:
– Creating an energy efficiency market
– Cut down the country’s annual energy usage by 5% by 2015, and carbon
dioxide emissions by 100 million tonne every year.
– Perform, Achieve and Trade (PAT) mechanism
Set targets on energy efficiency improvement for energy-intensive
industries and encourage trade of energy savings certificates - ESCerts
National Biofuel Policy - November 2009,
– Directive issued - mandatory for all oil-marketing companies - Petrol mixed
with 5% ethanol.
– an indicative target of 20% by 2017 for the blending of biofuels – bioethanol
and bio-diesel
Wind Energy:
– A cumulative capacity of 10,900 MW has been set up
Voluntary Emission Reduction:
– India on 3 December 2009 offered to voluntarily reduce its carbon intensity by
20-25% by 2020 from 2005 levels through policy interventions, including
mandatory fuel efficiency standards for all vehicles (by 2011). This would be
a domestic commitment and not legally binding internationally.
Case study: Lighting a billion lives
Around 68120 lanterns in field covering 1356 villages
across 21 States in India
http://labl.teriin.org/index.php?option=com_
gateway&view=video&Itemid=149
http://labl.teriin.org/index.php?option=com_
gateway&view=video&Itemid=149
GOLDEN RULE OF ENERGY
SECURITY
IT’S CHEAPER TO SAVE
THAN TO GENERATE