Atmosphere and Climate Change Section 2 Atmosphere Web quest

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Transcript Atmosphere and Climate Change Section 2 Atmosphere Web quest

Atmosphere and Climate Change
Atmosphere Web quest
Answers….
Section 2
Atmosphere and Climate Change
Section 2
1. What are the four main layers of
the atmosphere?
• Troposphere
• Stratosphere
• Mesosphere
• Thermosphere
– Ionosphere
– Exsosphere
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2. Which layer is closest to
space?
• Exosphere (upper layer of the thermosphere) Exo means
exit…
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3. Which layer is the hottest layer?
• Thermosphere (reaching temperatures of 1200 C)
• Therm means temperature
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4. Which layer is the coldest layer?
• Mesosphere
• Think Satelites
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5. What and where are the
ionosphere and exosphere?
• Thermosphere
• Ionosphere: is the lower layer of the thermosphere.
This is where earth’s communication is located along
with the aurora borealis.
• Exosphere: is the upper layer of the thermosphere.
Satellites are found in this layer.
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6. Draw a picture of the atmosphere…….write or draw a picture of one important
fact about each sphere. (make sure you pay attention to the spacing of each
sphere……one sphere is the smallest…….two are about the same in size……and
one is the largest).
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7. Why is the atmosphere
important?
• The atmosphere is an important part of what makes
Earth livable. It blocks some of the Sun's dangerous rays
from reaching Earth. It traps heat, making Earth a
comfortable temperature.
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8. What gases are most common in Earth’s
atmosphere? Give the percentages.
• nitrogen (78%), oxygen (21%), and other gases (1%)
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9. What is the greenhouse effect
(describe how it works)?
• Energy from the Sun that makes its way to the Earth’s
surface can have trouble finding its way back out to
space. This is because of a natural process called the
greenhouse effect. Without the greenhouse effect,
Earth’s temperature would be below freezing.
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10. What are the main greenhouse
gases?
• Carbon Dioxide Co2
• Water Vapor
H2O –The most abundant
• Nitrous oxide NO
• Methane
MH4
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11. Describe how each of the gases
contribute to the greenhouse effect and how
do they get into our atmosphere?
• Carbon Dioxide:
• it helps trap heat coming from the Sun in our atmosphere
through the greenhouse effect. Without carbon dioxide in
our air, the Earth would be very cold .
• Humans, animals, (Respiration) burning things, engines
of cars and trucks and factories.
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Methane
• Methane is a greenhouse gas. That means it helps make
Earth warm. But if there was too much methane, that
could make our planet too warm.
• Cow burps and flatulence, Farming rice, garbage dumps,
Termites, and Swamps
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Nitrous Oxide
• Nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2)
Nitrogen dioxide and nitric oxide molecules form
during combustion in car engines, power plants,
and factories. They can contribute to smog when
combined with oxygen molecules and the fumes
from paint and gasoline (called Volatile Organic
Compounds). They can also contribute to acid
rain if mixed with water vapor turning into nitric
acid. Nitrogen dioxide will break apart in sunlight
and the free oxygen atoms latch onto oxygen
molecules forming dangerous ground-level
ozone.
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12. What is air pollution?
• Both solid particles and chemicals in the air
• Anything that harms the environment
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13. Describe 2 types of air pollution
found in out atmosphere?
• Primary and Secondary
• Primary pollution is put directly to the air, such as smoke
and car exhausts. Secondary pollution forms in the air
when chemical reactions changes primary pollutants.
The formation of tropospheric ozone is an example of
secondary air pollution.
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14. When did air pollution begin?
(Is this just a recent development?)
• Air pollution is not new. As far back as the 13 th century,
people started complaining about coal dust and soot in
the air over London, England. Since the beginning of the
industrial revolution in the late 1700s, we have been
changing the Earth’s atmosphere and its chemistry. As
industry spread across the globe, so did air pollution.
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15. What is primary and secondary
air pollution?
• Primary pollution is put directly to the air, such as smoke
and car exhausts. Secondary pollution forms in the air
when chemical reactions changes primary pollutants.
The formation of tropospheric ozone is an example of
secondary air pollution.
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Troposphereic Ozone………
**What two places is ozone found?
• Troposphere and stratosphere
• O3 so three molecules of Oxygen…
• Oxygen is found in our atmsphere in both forms of O2
and O3. O2 is good down here..but O3 is bad down here
it is a pollutant…
• O3 is good in the stratosphere because it reflects the
suns harmful rays
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**What causes troposphereic
ozone?
• In the troposphere, ozone is NOT wanted! It can
actually do a lot of damage.
• Ozone that increases because of certain human
activities does become a problem at ground
level and this is what we think of as 'bad' ozone.
With increasing populations, more automobiles,
and more industry (power plants and refineries
in particular), there's more ozone in the lower
atmosphere. Since 1900, the amount of ozone
near the Earth's surface has more than doubled.
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**Is the ozone found in the
troposphere bad for us (explain)?
• Smog can damage lung tissues, impair an athlete's
performance, create more frequent attacks for
individuals with asthma, cause eye irritation, chest pain,
coughing, nausea, headaches and chest congestion. It
can even worsen heart disease, bronchitis, and
emphysema.
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**What’s the common name for
troposphereic ozone?
• SMOG
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17. What are the global effects of air
pollution? Explain why the two are a
concern.
• Climate Change
• Warm near the equator and cold at the poles, our planet
is able to support a variety of living things because of its
diverse regional climates. The average of all these
regions makes up Earth's global climate. Climate has
cooled and warmed throughout Earth history for various
reasons. Rapid warming like we see today is unusual in
the history of our planet. The scientific consensus is that
climate is warming as a result of the addition of heattrapping greenhouse gases which are increasing
dramatically in the atmosphere as a result of human
activities.
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Human Health
• People have no choice but to breathe the air around them.
When it is polluted, they breathe in ozone, particles and harmful
gases that can hurt their lungs, heart, and overall health. Air
pollution can cause coughing, burning eyes, and breathing
problems. Fortunately, people usually start to feel better as
soon as the air quality improves, but not always.
• Increase breathing problems in individuals with asthma,
bronchitis, and emphysema.
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Ozone Hole…
Explain why this is a concern.
• Ozone in the stratosphere protects us from ultraviolet
radiation in sunlight. The ozone layer is sort of like
sunscreen for planet Earth. It absorbs most of the
incoming UV "light" before it reaches the ground.
• This is causing health problems: cancer
• Warming the Earth
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What is causing the hole?
• Various chemicals that humans release into the
atmosphere help cause the hole
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When did scientist discover the
ozone hole?
• 1970
• Hole was found over the poles (in the winter)
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19. What is Global Warming?
• Warming of the Earth’s climate.
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20. What is the effect of global
warming?
• Earth’s climate is warming. During the 20th Century
Earth’s average temperature rose 0.6° Celsius
(1.1°F). Scientists are finding that the change in
temperature has been causing other aspects of our
planet to change
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21. How has earth’s temperature
changed over the last century?
• During the 20th Century Earth’s average temperature
rose 0.6° Celsius (1.1°F).
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22. List the effects of climate change due to global
warming (that we are seeing now).
•
Sea Level Rising
•
Arctic sea ice is melting
•
Glacier and permafrost is melting
•
Sea surface temperature are warming
•
Heavier rainfall causing flooding in many regions
•
Extreme drought
•
Ecosystems are changing
•
Hurricanes more frequent and strength
•
More frequent heat waves
•
Warmer temperatures are affecting human health
•
Seawater is becoming more acidic
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23. What do they predict will happen in the future due
to global warming and climate change?
• There will be more global warming is in our future
according to the results of computer models summarized
by the IPCC. For the next two decades warming of about
0.2° Celsius is projected. If we continue to emit as
many, or more, greenhouse gases, this will cause more
warming during the 21st Century than we saw in the 20th
Century. During the 21st Century, various computer
models predict that Earth’s average temperature will rise
between 1.8° and 4.0° Celsius (3.2° and 7.2° F)
depending largely on how humans change the ways they
live on the planet.
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24. What is acid rain, and explain the effect it
has on our environment.
• Acid rain is a general term used to describe different
kinds of acidic air pollution. Although some acidic air
pollutants return directly back to Earth, a lot of it
returns in rain, snow, sleet, hail, mist or fog, which is
why we call it acid rain
• Acid rain can have harmful impacts on the ecosystems in the environment. It
acidifies the soil and water where it falls, damaging or killing plants and
animals. Surface water acidification can lead to a decline in, and loss of, fish
populations and other aquatic species including frogs, snails and crayfish.
Acid rain affects trees, usually by weakening them through damage to their
leaves.