PowerPoint Presentation - The International Association for Ecology!

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Transcript PowerPoint Presentation - The International Association for Ecology!

Review on needfulness for
plant ecophysiological study and investigation on climate change’s effects on
forest, rangeland and desert ecosystems.
By: Dr. Mostafa Jafari
Research Institute of Forests and Rangelands,
(Plant ecology/ plant ecophysiology)
(Lead author for AR4/IPCC, [email protected] )
Abstract
Importance of Global Warming and its’ effects on natural resources, plants, animal and in
general on human life are among subjects that received attention of scientists and politicians
in recent years. United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change as a legal
document has been signed in Rio and approved by governments. To control and reduced gas
emission and keep them in certain level Kyoto Protocol was agreed. I.R. Iran and many other
of Near East and Central Asian countries governments signed convention in Rio or later and
ratified later. Acceptance and ratification of Kyoto Protocol by the Government of I.R. of
Iran announced officially to the secretariat. Hence, from two points of view, technical and
political, this issue could be considered.
Carbon dioxide and other produced gases have involved in warm up the Earth. Scientists
found warming up resulted increase evaporation and density of water steam in atmosphere.
As a result, precipitation pattern including rain or snow will change. Other fact and
projection shows, warm and dry regions, will become warmer and drier, thus, this is
important issue to be considered in arid and semi-arid of Near East and Central Asia. Climate
change is a phenomenon that simultaneously effects with change in temperature precipitation
and carbon dioxide, so, changes in all three factors should be considered in the same time.
Climate change issue and study of global warming attract scientists significantly. Three
reports published by Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change show lack of adequate
research result on climate change for the Near East and Central Asia. It could be used for
compellation of the reports.
Various subjects of plant ecophysiology could be study in relation to climate change. Some
of them can be mentioned: basic limiting factors of plant growth, structure and function of
ecosystems, biodiversity, gas exchange in leaf and or water use efficiency.
Keywords:
climate change, plant ecophysiology, ecosystems, photosynthesis, evapotranspiration.
Subject for consideration from cell to ecosystem
Plant ecophysiological studies subjects are very variable and cover different dimensions of
ecological physiology. Some of these subjects could be listed as follow:
Principals and limiting factors; plants and microclimate; irradiance balance and energy
budget in leaf; stomata control and biochemical gas exchange in leaf; stable isotopes; water
use efficiency; different photosynthetic pathways and carbon allocation; photosynthesis
adaptation with light and temperature; crown cover architecture and water use efficiency in
plant, soil and atmosphere; root systems and water uptake; water use and water role in
tissues; plant architecture and electrical conductance; adaptation to water stress and nutrient
deficiency.
Climate change effect could be considered at plant cell or ecosystem levels, and study on
modeling possibly can give interpretation of link on these two sides. Some of the study topics
could be listed as follow:
Balance and water budget in global pattern of ecosystems distribution; energy and carbon
balance; development of soil and existing; nutritional cycle and decomposition; net primary
productivities; population dynamic; sustainable and unstable ecosystems dynamic models;
ecosystem development during primary and secondary successions; ecosystem structure and
functions; biodiversity and climate change.
It is possible to use remote sensing techniques to accelerate studies.
Study of correlation between data obtained in cell and plant level and data obtained by
remote sensing techniques;
Research goals
In this kind of research and studies it is necessary to consider plant ecophysiological aspects
in reaction to climatic factors changes, in scale of cell, whole plants and ecosystems.
The research result should clearly answer to these questions:
Is there any link between climate change and changes in plant physiological functions?
Is there any correlation between changes in cell level and changes in ecosystems?
What is the systematic changes and how it does work?
Evapotranspiration is main element in water balance and net primary production in plants.
This should be investigated for different plant and various climatic eco-zones.
How it is possible by measurement of evapotranspiration and other major element, which