ECOLOGY - International Center for Chemical and Biological Sciences

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Transcript ECOLOGY - International Center for Chemical and Biological Sciences

BIODIVERSITY,
ECOLOGY,
GENETIC ENGINEERING
&
CLIMATE CHANGE
Ecology ↔ Ecosystem
Concept related
Ecosystem→Any Change
becomes fragile & collapses.
WHY OUR ANCESTORS
survived !
Sense of “ONENESS”→they
helped each other, as
everything was holy.
• As “ECOLOGY” knowledge increases
we get astonished at the diversity & unity
of life.
• Ecology means thinking about soils,
waters, air, plants, animals, and all their
relationships.
• HELPS
IN: balancing physical,
biological & human dimensions.
Ecological processes generate
patterns.
Save the Pattern –
you will save the Process as well.
However;
Ecosystem is a Depletable Asset,
not a BOTTOMLESS PIT.
Ecosystems have a purpose to support
& sustain human welfare.
People → dependent on ecosystem
resources
but do not have a dominion over them.
Very powerful , capable of causing
great harm if not treated with respect.
Sustaining desired
-ecological,
-economic, and
- social conditions
in ecosystems is a big
challenge.
BUT IT IS NOT AN
IMPOSSIBLE TASK.
Should we restore ecosystems ?
What do we want to restore ?
What can we restore ?
ANSWER: SUSTAINABILITY
Sustainability
Everyone agrees it is a good thing.
Term is appealing
" green“environmentalists +
commodity producers favour ita desirable ecological condition.
We must ask the relevant questions.
What is to be sustained?
At what level to be sustained ?
How long to be sustained / for whom?
Biodiversity + Sustainability –
Popular buzzwords.
Mean different things to different
people and NOTHING TO SOME!
BD valuable characteristic of ecosystems
for “ECOLOGICAL”,
“ECONOMICAL ”,
“EDUCATIONAL”,
and aesthetic reasons.
TODAY 06-01-2014 : A Typical day on our
planet Earth→
WHAT IS HAPPENING JUST NOW?
Human population will increase by 250,000
TODAY.
We will add 2,700 tons chlorofluorocarbons
to the atmosphere & 15 mil. tons of carbon.
Earth will be a little hotter Tonight and
Waters more acidic.
We may loose 40 to 100 sps. due to
human mismanagement.
BUT IS the NO: 40 or 100?
BIO TAXA on Earth→
estimate is ± 14 mil.
40 % of the world’s economy & 80%
of the needs of the poor derived
from BD.
30.000 plant species-totally or
partially gone extinct ( 100 years).
12,259 sps. 13→
known to be threatened with
extinction.
±5,000 taxa of plants →
extinct since 1700.
 ± 17 plants lost /year.
Loss of genetic diversity around
15-20 %→3000 ha/hour /day of our
forests destroyed.
80% of tropical forests with 1400 plant
taxa lost
(70 % may be raw material for disease
treatment).

About 10–70 % of BD at increased risk of
extinction from climate change,
-2050: climate-induced changes in the
habitat will result in the extinction of
15-37 % of species .
We are entering the 6th great mass extinction
&
anthropogenic climate change would be one
of
the major threats of extinction to global BD.
Birds(worldwide):42 sps. & 44 ssp., -Mammals (“): 73 sps. & 30 ssp.,
-Amphibians (“): 122 sps. have gone extinct in historic times, mostly due to
human activities. This is only the tip of the iceberg.
Species
Population
Bali tiger
Extinct, 1940s
Caspian tiger
Extinct, 1970s
Javan tiger
Extinct, 1980s
Sumatran tiger
400 individuals
South China tiger
20
Siberian tiger
Indo-Chinese tiger
200
1,000
Bengal tiger
3,000
Snow leopard (Uncia uncia) (Altai Mountains)
Mongolian Steppes (In DANGER)
Main causes in prehistoric times:
natural disasters- competition with other sps.
In historic times most drastic decline ever is seen.
Rate at which species are becoming extinct
today:higher than the natural one.
REASONS
1.overexploitation & exotic sps. introductions,
2.increase of land use,
3.economic activities parallel to the
geometric rise of human population,
4.physical habitat destructions, 5.deforestation,
6.urbanization,
7.industrialization,
8.pollution & pests.
WE are both
creature &
moulder of
our environment.
Time & space
act as limiting
factors at all
levels in our
Environment.
Biodiversity hotspots for conservation priorities: Norman Myers*, Russell A.
Mittermeier, Cristina G. Mittermeier, Gustavo A. B. da Fonseca & Jennifer Kent
NATURE |VOL 403 | 24 FEBRUARY 2000 |www.nature.com
• Hotspots identified by IUCN cover 2.3 % of the Earth's land surface, yet
more than 50 % of the world’s plant species & 42 % of all terrestrial
vertebrate species are endemic to these areas.
• All are threatened by human activities. Most of the last 50 years conflicts - in
the ecologically most rich & threatened parts of the planet. OUT of 146
of the wars fought between 1950 - 2000 , 118 occurred in BD HOTSPOTS.
Shrinking
Earth
Globalisation
Increase in
Activities
20. Cent.
Infinite Surface
21. Centuary
Finite Surface
At current extinction rates →no way to
provide sufficient food + medicine ;
population expected in 2050 9 bil.
BD will become even more critical with
climate change → uncertainty over
which plant & livestock species will
remain viable.
For more food -need for the
protection & management
of global BD
1 % increase in the food prices will mean more
than 16 mil. more hungary mouths.
1.2 bil. humans expected to get effected till 2025,
particulalry in Africa.
With current extinction rates –very difficult
to meet the demands-when the population of
humans alone reaches 9 bil. in 2050.
Plants and animals already under
stressful conditions will suffer
more
from changes in the environmental
parameters and climate change
reaching a critical level.
Agricultural productivity depends on
resources and diversities in the nature.
IT WILL ALSO mean?
More Human Health Problems
in Developing Nations
Shortage of Synthetic Produced
Drugs.
Decrease in Resources,
Need for new ones.
Age and Immunity related diseases.
Genetical and Infectious Diseases.
Drivers of Biodiversity Loss
Indirect Drivers
Economic
Demographic
Sociopolitical
Cultural &
religious
Science &
Technology
Direct Drivers
Habitat
Change
Climate
Change
Invasive
Species
Biodiversity
Overexploitation
Loss
Nutrients
& pollution
Yet another aspect of BD is the variety of Ecosystem
Diversity: deserts, forests, wetlands, mountains, lakes,
rivers & agricultural landscapes.
In each ecosystem, living creatures, including humans,
form a community, interacting with one another &
with the air, water, & soil around them.
15 of 24 Ecosystem
Services are in Decline
Provisioning Services
Food
Regulating Services
Air quality regulation

Climate regulation – global

Climate– regional and local

Water regulation
+/–
crops

livestock

capture
fisheries

Disease regulation
aquaculture

Pest regulation

wild foods

Pollination

Natural hazard regulation

Erosion regulation

Water / waste treatment

+/–
timber
+/–
cotton, silk
+/–
wood fuel

Genetic resources

Spiritual / religious values

Biochemicals, medicines

Aesthetic values

Fresh water

Recreation and ecotourism
Fiber
Cultural Services
+/–
Ecosystems: Tropical & boreal forests declining,
temperate forests & plantations expanding
At the level of whole ecosystems: we are losing about over 7 million
hectares a year. The red areas show losses – mostly tropical and boreal
forests. (Some natural temperate forests are expanding, and major tree
planting in China).
Nitrogen Loading
• Humans have doubled
the amount of
biologically available
N in the world’s
ecosystems and by
2050 may have
increased N levels
more than threefold
Climate Change Impacts
Predictions:
Global mean sea level may rise to 88 cm -ending
21st century (flooding of coasts, estuaries &
river deltas can alter the physical structure of
habitats & lower habitat availability &
suitability).
Atmos. Concen. of CO2 steadily rising, ± 315 ppm
(1959) to a current average ± 385 ppm.
Expectations for the rise ±500–1000 ppm by the
year 2100.
This is what
happened in
China after
Ice Rain
Click to see
more……….
Adverse effects of high temperature in plants
MAPS will get the share
Denaturation of
Reduced Membrane Fluidity
Protein Structure
Reduction in Photosynthetic
Traits
DNA Damage ------------- HighHigh
Temperature----------Temperature
Disturbance in Water Relations Inhibition of Growth
Decrease in Enzyme Activity
Production of Toxic
Compounds
Threats for plant diversity
Elucidation of the potential mechanisms and tools in
modulating high temperature response, plant phyiology,
metabolism needed.
20th Cen. →Age of Physics & Mechanics.
Controlled from Outside
(Energy Dependent= Strict Rules).
21 st Cen. Age of Biology
(Internally governed, Adaptive).
Century of :
 Organismic Ecology &
DNA dominated “Genetic Engineering”.
BEECH
An old tree with a canopy diameter 14.3 m
-produces: 1.7 kg of Oxygen/hour,
- uses 2.35 kg of CO2 per hour,
-filters 1 ton of dust per year,
-spends 400 lt of H20 on a sunny day,
-decreases temperature by 5 0C,
-reduces wind velocity by 50 %,
-prevets erosion by 350 times.
Roots of Genetic Engineering very OLD:
(SUPER HEN)
Mesopotamya, Assyrians in 1250-1150 BC
Bar-bek-Eurib (Father of Biotechnology)
GM’s sold
at the markets:
syabeans, corn,
tomato, and few others.
Hebrew University Rehovot-Israil (22 May,2002).
GE help: Hairless Hen and Cock
(fleshy, low fat, environmentally friendly)
GE-Usefull Industrial Establishments:
Fermentation Technology,
Plastics, Synthetic Rubber,
Pesticides, Resins etc.
Bacteria for remediation of
toxic wastes.
GM Crops for hungary.
Transgenic Tomatoes
(prevents softening).
Salt resistant species.
 Resistant to environmentally
friendly herbicides, more green
transgeneic products: wheat,
Kolza, Beet, Endives.
Wheat, Corn, Rice , 3 basic
cereals: nitrogen fixing bacterial
gene cloning with the help of
plasmids.
Bacillus thuringiensis
prevention from insects and
development of organic
agricultural development thus
reducing use of pesticides and
fertilisers.
Terminator Technology
GMC important success.
Sowing of new seeds intervened..
(germinating embryo in the seed
has toxic trnasgene so dies.)
Soil erosion problem:
Readymade soya fertilisers.
Tracer genes resistant to antibiotics.
Genetically synthesized hormones
cheaper than chemically synthesized ones.
Effective Medicine: Natural
expensive but cheap when
produced with bacteria.
Recombinant DNA Methods
 Vaccines against measles,
malaria, Poliomyelit.
• Disolution of blood clotting
with urokinase enzyme.
Interferon
Hepatit
Influenza
Nanism,
Insulin production from
bacterial cells.
Use of Timosin -1 in the
treatment of brain and
lung cancer.
Gene therapi against
beta telassemi blood disease.
Real Revolution:
Pre-detremination of humane diseases
even before birth.
Isolation of long life gene.
RISKS
Ancak Genetik Mühendisliği
Kes  yapıştır kadar basit değil.
Bir tek herbiside dayanıklı mutant
bakteri üretmek için Milyonlarca
mikroorganizmanın denenmesi gerekmektedir.
GYDC hızlı bir şekilde hastalıklara ve iklim
değişikliklerine dayanıklı dünyadaki mevcut
tahıl çeşitliliğini değiştirebilir,böylece gıda
üretimini ani katastrofik zararlara karşı açık tutabilir.
SAĞLIĞA POTANSİYEL ZARARLAR
Gıda ürünlerde yeni allerjenler.
Yeni toksinlerin üretimi.
Toksik metallerin biyoakümülasyonu.
Toksik mantarlar için uygun çevre yaratma.
Potansiyel Çevre Zararları
Yabani otlarda artış.
Yabani akrabalara Gen
Aktarımı örneğin; hardal,
yabani şalgam, yabani turp.
Zehirlenen yabani hayat.
Önemli zararlılara ait hassas
genlerin boşuna harcanması.
Yeni veya daha tehlikeli
virusların yaratılması.
Herbisit kullanım şeklinin değiştirilmesi
herbisite dayanıklı yeni istilaci türler
Kolza da saptanmayan bileşimin bir parçasının
sıçanlardaki DNA
ile reaksiyona girdiği yakın zamanda
saptanmıştır, bu da olası mutajenik ve
karsinojenik durumlarına işarettir.
Geniş bir görüşe gerek vardır;
aksi takdirde:
“Çevre Tahribatı” ile beslenen
“Ekonomik Çöküş”
“Sosyal Patlamaya” neden olur.
Yaşamamız için bize gerekli olan bir
Ekolojik Anlayış” tır.
“Çok başarılar elde ediyoruz fakat büyük hatalarda
yapıyoruz. Bizim antroposentrik düşünce
(yani herşey insan kullanımı için dir)
çevremizdeki herşeye zarar veriyor.
Bu bizim yaşantımızdan kaynaklamaktadır.
Bilim ve ruhun geniş çapta birleşeceği bir geleceğye
gereksinimimiz vardır.
SONUÇ
GM ürünlerinin uzun
kullanımdan
oluşacak tehlikeler
iyice araştırılması
gerekmektedır.
Bunlarda 150 kadar toksik gen grubu
bulunmaktadır,
bunlar yeteri kadar allerjik durum ve
toksisite yaratabilirler.
GM, geleneksel ıslahın çok ötesindedir.
GM, genleri çalıp
hücrelere götürür.
Son zamanlarda bazı
hastalıklardaki
artışın patojenlerden
yatay gen transferi ile
ilgili olduğu belirtilmektedir.
Çaprazlanmayan türler arasında
YENİ GEN TRANSFERİ,
tür engellerini bozmakta ve
türlerdeki koruma mekanizmasını
ortadan kaldırmaktadır.
Pollution due to GE
has created
‘Genetic Smog’
more dangerous than
radioactive
fallout?????....
Term used is copied
gene, if human gene is
put into our foods
will it not mean
Cannibalism!!
Etic
If genetic interchanges between
humans, animals and plants
happen what will be the results!
Say e.g., pork gene transferred
to vegetables and cereals.
For 1 "Dolly“ 300 denek were
used.
If this experiment is applied to
the humans, what will be the
result?
Prof. Rotblat:
(1995 Nobel Prize)–
“I am afraid that other advancements in the
science may lead to other toplu tahribatlara
 Any genetic structure fatal for humans and left
unattended may pass on to other micro-organisms
and change their structure leading to an
annihilation of humanity.
Science is tarafsız and value is open.
Its application
and technological side can be BAD or GOOD.
This depends on we---- the humans.
Using it on the bad side may end up with
dangeroue consequences.
Among Living Beings
DNA is oneway ticket
DNA is the cause and
Organism is the result.
Ecology is attached to
a system working
back & forth.
WE are the Problem
we do not differentiate
ethical and
non-ethical aspects.
Solving the problem needs ecocentric attitude.
Truth that makes GE dangerous is a close
cooperation between this science and trade.
GE: Like Russian RULET
RULETİ’na
Ecologically GE has more
suspicion, But it makes you earn
money.
We blame Science & Technology,
but all new develolpments are not
possible without humans.
Genetic Resources & Intellectual
Property Rights (IPR)
• GRs encountered in nature are not
creations of the human mind, they cannot
be directly protected as an IP.
• Inventions or plant varieties based on or
developed
using
GRs
(associated
with traditional knowledge or not) may be
patentable or protected by plant breeders’
rights.
• Frameworks for access and benefitsharing provided by---Convention on
Biological Diversity (CBD), Nagoya
Protocol, International Treaty on Plant
Genetic Resources for (FAO).
The main messages
•
We are having increasingly
ecosystems and their services.
•
Many segments of society have benefited from the
mining of ecosystem services but the sustainability of
these services is at risk.
•
Scenarios of the future show do not show substantial
abatement of degradation.
•
But we have options to build but more favorable
trajectories but these will take substantial new actions.
larger impacts
on
• Genetic Resources -living material including
genes of present & potential value for
humans- include agricultural crops, some of
their wild relatives (as valuable traits).
• Few Crops used in modern agriculture with
often a narrow genetic base.
• A Contrast: large number of land races with
a substantial genetic variation used by
earlier generations.
• If Genetic Impoverishment increases –
serious consequences, especially with
climate change.
• Crop varieties with a narrow genetic base
can be completely destroyed by diseases.
• Plant breeders need go back to older
varieties or closely related wild species to
find disease resistant genes.
• Even advanced gene technology cannot replace
natural variation, with its abundance of genes
& gene interactions.
• Gene interaction is irreplaceable,without it no
breeding can take place.
• Organized preservation of genetic resources is
a prerequisite for future generations to be able
to breed crop varieties and medicinal plant
resources to face new challenges.
• Not mch information on future demands for
crop varieties.
BUT
• We do know they will have to be part of:
-more environmental friendly cultivation system,
-be of better quality,
-have improved resistances,
especially when it comes to meeting the challange
of climate change we currently face.
• Preserved variety without accompanying
information on its characteristics & provenance
is of limited value.
• Information attached to each single seed
source is immensely valuable -held in genetic
database.
• Local varieties have enormous cultural &
historical
value-tell
us
how
earlier
generations lived, cultivated, ate, enjoyed and
reasoned.
• Cultural & historical perspectives play an
important part in the preservation practices
Stewardship
Earth and everything in it has not been created in
vain or for fun.
Our universe is like chain of beads acting under a
complete submission to the prescribed Laws of their
Creator.
He has created enough for us, but not enough for
our “Greed”.
This purpose lifts us out into a role of stewardship.
ENVIRONMENT, NATURE, UNIVERSE
COUNTRIES
COUNTRY
SOCIETY
FAMILY
WE
HUMANS
DEVELOPMENT &
INDUSTRY
INTERNATIONAL
COMMUNITY
ECONOMY
INDIVIDUAL
EXTRAVAGANT
CONSUMER SOCIETY
RENEWAL OF
TECHNOLOGY
PHYLOSOPHICA
L VIEW OF
UNIVERSEENVIRONMENT
IGNORANCE
LAW
19 FACTORS
EFFECTING
ENVIRONMENTAL
PROBLEMS
ENVIRONMEN
TAL ETHICS
URBANISATION
LACK OF
INTEREST
RESOURCE
PLANNING
TIME USE
STATE
PLANNING
EDUCATION
MUNCIPALITIES
PROBLEM
SOLVING
GROUP
6-BASIC ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS
3-SUGGESSTIONS FOR SOLUTIONS
URBANISATION
WATER
POLLUTION
ECOLOGY &
ENVIRONMENTAL
SCIENCES
SOIL
POLLUTION
AIR
POLLUTION
ENVIRONMENTAL
EDUCATION
ENVIRONMENTAL
ETHICS
SOLID WASTE
TRANSPORTATION
Ecosystems have a purpose to
support and sustain human
welfare.
Success will depend on-3 hoops
ECOLOGICALLY
VIABLE
SUSTAINABLE
SOLUTIONS
ECONOMICALLY
FEASIBLE
SOCIALLY
ACCEPTABLE
Without proper decisions ours will come
crashing down, like 21 major
civilizations before us.
Crystal ball of the future is clouded –
A long shadow in the direction of the
desired future conditions.
We have started interrogating the
meaning of “Life”.
Quo Vadimus ?
Ecology, Sustainability & Stewardship
prudent path to pursue.
However all are as yet dreams.
BECAUSE:
Concern for personal wealth has
replaced concern for society.
God lives on stock exchange markets.
The ethic for today is; greed is good, rules
are for fools, and he who is rich in the end
wins.
The grasping spirit today says; better means
more wealth and more power.
We have passed through an era of
exploitation, but have now entered in to eras
of preservation and sustainability.
Poverty of the majority & Over Consumption by minority
major causes of Eco-Disasters.
Camel- Low income economies $ 1000 or less
Grey-Middle-income economies $ 1000- $10.000
Green-High-income economies above $ 10.000
OUR SECOND SUN IS
AFFECTION & RESPONSIBILITY