beyond Marx and Capitalism

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Transcript beyond Marx and Capitalism

Climate Change
Copenhagen Discord
Walter Mendoza
February Dialogues
Fireflies Ashram
February 17, 2010
The basis in Science
The latest is the
Fourth IPCC Assessment Report,
"Climate Change 2007".
AR4
The basis in Science
Nobel Peace Prize
2007
Al Gore and IPCC
•
•
•
Net CO2 emissions = 7.9 GtC/yr
Net CO2 intake capacity = 3.1 GtC/yr
Excess CO2 emissions = 4.8 GtC/yr, 55% more than intake capacity
Total and per capita emissions
8
World average 4 tonnes per person per year
Can sustain 2 tonnes per person per year
20.14
20.24
19.24
16.44
11.88
9.55
9.65
9.56
9.37
4.37
4.07
0.11
0.46
New Zealand
Nepal
Japan
India
China
Bangladesh
2.00
1.07
0.28
Australia
South Africa
Kenya
Russia
United Kingdom
Netherlands
Germany
Guyana
Brazil
United States
Canada
0.28
Tanzania
0.11
1.94 2.07
Vanuatu
10.24
4.07
1.94 2.07
Vanuatu
9.65
New Zealand
0.11
1.07
Nepal
9.56
Japan
0.28
India
China
Bangladesh
20.14
Australia
0.11
0.28
Tanzania
9.55
South Africa
Kenya
Russia
10.24
United Kingdom
Netherlands
Germany
Guyana
Brazil
United States
Canada
Who?
19.24
20.24
16.44
11.88
9.37
4.37
2.00
0.46
As is GHG dumping
4.07
1.94 2.07
Vanuatu
9.65
New Zealand
0.11
1.07
Nepal
9.56
Japan
0.28
India
China
Bangladesh
20.14
Australia
0.11
0.28
Tanzania
9.55
South Africa
Kenya
Russia
10.24
United Kingdom
Netherlands
Germany
Guyana
Brazil
United States
Canada
Reduce – to converge
19.24
20.24
16.44
11.88
9.37
4.37
2.00
0.46
4.07
1.94 2.07
Vanuatu
9.65
New Zealand
0.11
1.07
Nepal
9.56
Japan
0.28
India
China
Bangladesh
20.14
Australia
0.11
0.28
Tanzania
9.55
South Africa
Kenya
Russia
10.24
United Kingdom
Netherlands
Germany
Guyana
Brazil
United States
Canada
Increase to converge
Climate justice
19.24
20.24
16.44
11.88
9.37
4.37
2.00
0.46
Equity
THE POLITICS
The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate
Change (UNFCCC)
191 countries have ratified the Convention
recognizes that the climate system is a shared resource
it is a Framework for Intergovernmental efforts to
* gather and share information
greenhouse gas emissions, national policies and best
practices
* launch national strategies
for addressing greenhouse gas emissions and
adapting to expected impacts,
* cooperate in preparing for adaptation
to the impacts of climate change
including the provision of financial and technological support
to developing countries
THE POLITICS
COP1 -The Berlin Mandate 1995
Common but Differentiated
responsibilities
Developing countries refused to take up
binding commitments
Two year Analytical and Assessment
Phase (AAP)
to address the original goal of the
convention - to stabilize GHG emissions
by Annex 1 countries at 1990 levels by
2000
THE POLITICS
The Kyoto Protocol
It is a protocol to the United Nations Framework
Convention on Climate Change
The Kyoto Protocol is a legally binding agreement
under which
industrialized countries will reduce their collective
emissions of greenhouse gases
by 5.2% compared to the year 1990
calculated as an average over the five-year
commitment period of 2008-12
The Kyoto Protocol entered into force on
16 February 2005.
THE POLITICS
Flexible Mechanisms
CDMs
THE POLITICS
COP13 - Bali 2007
The Bali Action Plan:
Twin track Process
IPCC – Bali : 25% - 40% < 1990 levels
THE POLITICS
COP 14 at Poznan, Poland
The National Action Plan on Climate Change
India
Key issues for Copenhagen
350 / 450? ppm
2°C / 1.5°C
ISSUES INVOLVED
• Industrial countries responsible for
Climate change phenomenon. Over
80% of C02 emissions in the
atmosphere for the last 150 years
have come from richer countries
ISSUES INVOLVED
• Industrial countries responsible for
Climate change phenomenon. Over
80% of C02 emissions in the
atmosphere for the last 150 years
have come from richer countries
• bogey
increased CO2 likely from newly
industrialised countries
• elephant in the room
population!
ISSUES INVOLVED
• Inadequate current reduction
targets compared to urgency of
the problem
IPCC – Bali : 25% - 40%
EU
: 20% - 30%
US
: 17%
Japan
: 25%
ISSUES INVOLVED
• Fudging on the
CUT OFF – BASE Year:
IPCC – Bali
EU
US
Japan
: 25% - 40% 1990
: 20% - 30% 2000?
: 17%
2005
: 25%
1990
ISSUES INVOLVED
• Total emissions – per capita
emissions
bogey
India and China among the top five
emitters – total emissions
total emissions today
Copenhagen Discord
Copenhagen Discord
28
Role of Civil Society Today?
Role of Civil Society
• Significant Role in the run-up to Kyoto
CAN
CSE
• Then commercial interests took over
The Corporation!
It is an entity!
It has the rights of an individual
The buck stops with this entity
But the power, the benefits, and the
freedom go to the individuals behind
these entities
Role of Civil Society
As a result today there is a divide:
International NGOs vs Third World NGOs
Policy / Advocacy NGOs vis a vis Grassroots
beyond Marx and Capitalism
• poverty and oppression are issues
of power
• poverty is technology and finance
gone haywire
• development causes poverty
IMPLICATIONS
• Inequity is growing as theRe-define development:
Traditionally, Development = growth + equity + social
justice.
trickle down theory has failed
Percent income
Richest 25%
Middle 50%
Poorest 25%
1860
1913
58%
30%
12%
69%
25%
6%
1960
72%
25%
3%
Richest 20%
Middle 60%
Poorest 20%
74%
24%
2%
2000
beyond Marx and Capitalism
Structural Change
The overthrow of oppressive, exploitative structures
Structural Adjustment
Adjusting to reality, pragmatic programmes
Managing problems – transfer of technology, knowhow
beyond Marx and Capitalism
Structural Transformation
beyond Marx and Capitalism
Structural Transformation
economic, cultural, social,
political and spiritual
institutions
that reflect the
voices and power of
the marginalized
beyond Marx and Capitalism
Structural Transformation
• we have myriads of initiatives
and experiments across the
country, sub-continet, the world
• they are isolated, random,
dispersed
beyond Marx and Capitalism
Structural Transformation
• we need a myriad democratised
intermediary level institutions that
link these initiatives
• Focus on entitlements and
capabilities
beyond Marx and Capitalism
Structural Transformation
• democracy is the answer to poverty and
scarcity
China is no model – it is an extreme imitation of all
that has gone wrong with the west
• democracy is giving voice and action to the
marginalized
Decentralisation
Layers of Autonomy
local, regional, national, (international)
based on Entitlements and Capabilities
Implies recognition of
local traditions - knowledge, technology
skills, culture, …
democratization of science, technology and
finance
neither only bottom-up; or top down
beyond Marx and Capitalism
Structural Transformation
• in structural transformation – the
independent, autonomous quest
for alternatives it’s a subversive
function – satyagraha
Our participation in
Structural Transformation
We are part of the problem
urban
high transaction costs
excessive mobility
high consumption
conduits of the top-down approach
We can be part of the solution
dealing with our own carbon footprint
respect for the dignity of local capabilities
be the intersection facilitating the cross flow of information,
knowledge and other resources
urban resource: decentralised, democratised
beyond Marx and Capitalism
Learning from Gandhi
• Gandhi's voluntarism was a major shift in
voluntarism practiced in traditional Indian society.
• It emphasized empowerment and transformation of
society and acquired a political content.
• However, these voluntary initiatives had none of the
organizational characters to classify them as
modern.
Structural Transformation
let us be part of the Solution
with
conviction
commitment
and compassion
This is true satyagraha
Thank You