Why California? - National Caucus of Environmental Legislators
Why California? - National Caucus of Environmental Legislators
Potential Climate Change
Impacts on California
Air Quality - Respiratory Illness
Infectious and Tropical Diseases
Source: Anne Grambsch, 1998
Geographic Range of Forests
Forest Health and Productivity
Competition for Water
Erosion of Beaches
Inundation of Coastal Wetlands
Additional Costs to Protect
Species and Natural Areas
Loss of Habitat and Species
Assembly Bill 1493 Signed
July 22, 2002
Governor Gray Davis signed
Assembly Bill 1493, a law that
directed the California Air
Resources Board (CARB) to adopt
regulations to achieve the
“maximum feasible and cost
effective reduction of greenhouse
gases (GHG) from motor vehicles
beginning with model year 2009”
AB 1493 -- The Regulations
•Requires carmakers to reduce GHG
from their vehicle fleets by
approximately 30% by 2016
•Developed two standards -•Cars and lightest trucks
•Created near-term (2009-2012) and
mid-term standards (2013-2016)
•CARB approximates cost for new cars
to increase by $300
of AB 1493
(d) The regulations adopted by the state board pursuant to
subdivision (a) shall not require any of the following:
(1) The imposition of additional fees and taxes on any motor
vehicle, fuel, or vehicle miles traveled, pursuant to this section or
any other provision of law.
(2) A ban on the sale of any vehicle category in the state,
specifically including, but not limited to, sport utility vehicles and
(3) A reduction in vehicle weight.
(4) A limitation on, or reduction of, the speed limit on any street
or highway in the state.
(5) A limitation on, or reduction of, vehicle miles traveled.
Per Vehicle Emission
Reductions and Cost
Compared to 2009
Near Term Passenger cars, small trucks
Mid Term Passenger cars, small trucks
Reduced operating cost provides payback
to vehicle owner:
Near term (most packages):
Mid term (most packages):
Source: California Air Resources Board
0 to 5 years
4 to 7 years
AB 1493 -- Implementation
Under the Clean Air Act, other states can adopt California
standards or Federal standards. The following states have
adopted or will adopt California’s “Clean Car” regulations.
AB 1493 -- Legal Challenges
Lawsuits were filed by domestic and foreign automobile
companies in December 2005, claiming…
Clean Air Act
EPA has determined that
Congress did not
authorize EPA to regulate
CO2 or any other
greenhouse gas under the
Act -- “precludes” EPA
granting a waiver of
CA’s global warming regs
are preempted by the
federal CAFE in two ways:
they are “related to” fuel
economy, and they are
inconsistent with NHTSA
accomplishment of federal
Agreement with Its
On April 5, 2005, the Government of Canada and the
Canadian automotive industry signed a major
Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) on climate
change. Under the MOU the Canadian auto industry
will take actions to voluntarily reduce GHG emissions
of new vehicles in Canada so that by 2010, annual
emission reductions will reach 5.3 megatonnes.
“Technological advances will allow the
Canadian automotive industry to make
significant GHG reductions from cars and
trucks through 2010 and beyond.”
Canada’s original goal was to improve fuel
efficiency by 25%. Instead they adopted
an approach consistent with California’s
On June 1, 2005, Governor Arnold
Schwarzenegger issues order and states
that the debate on climate change is over.
Further he said, “By working together we
can meet the needs of both our economy
and environment. Together we can
continue California’s environmental
heritage and legacy of leadership in
innovation in cutting edge technology.”
From the Governor’s Executive Order
•By 2010, reduce GHG
emissions to 2000 levels
•By 2020, reduce GHG
emissions to 1990 levels
•By 2050, reduce GHG
emissions to 80 percent
below 1990 levels
Public Policy Institute Poll
2500 Californians were
surveyed in July 2005
What about the state law that requires all
automakers to further reduce the
emissions of greenhouse gases from new
cars in California beginning in 2009?
77% in favor
(85% Dem., 64% Rep., 81% Ind.)
Do you oppose or favor the GHG
emission targets recently established by
Governor Schwarzenegger, which aim to
reduce emissions from cars, power plants
and industry by more than 80% over the
next 50 years?
69% in favor
(72% Dem., 69% Rep., 74% Ind.)
AB 32 (Nunez-Pavley)
•12th largest emitter of global warming
pollution in the world.
•When California takes action, the impact is
felt around the country and the world.
•California can gain a competitive advantage
in the clean energy market by acting first.
•Mandates reporting of emissions from significant
sources by January 1, 2008.
•Requires the California Air Resources Board
(CARB) to cap GHG emissions at 1990 levels.
•Emission reductions to begin in 2012 and be
achieved by 2020.
•Develops a list of early actions by July 1, 2007 and
adopts regulations by January 1, 2010.
•Includes a scoping plan to achieve statewide GHG
emissions reductions by January 1, 2009.
•Allows CARB to adopt regulations on the use of
market mechanisms to achieve reductions.
•Allows CARB to use a broad range of existing authorities
•Authorizes the use of fees with regulated entities for the
administering of the statute.
•CARB will convene an environmental justice advisory board
representing impacted communities.
•CARB will convene advisory committee to facilitate
investment, research and development, and other
technologies to reduce GHG.
AB 32 -- Supporters
•42 Assembly co-authors and 15
•U.S. Senators Feinstein and Boxer
and 8 members of Congress
•Public interest groups
•Air, water and utility districts
•Technology and biotechnology
•Health organizations and
•Business organizations and
•Editorial support from media
•Environmental and conservation
Timeline to Implementation
June 30, 2007 -- Early Action Emission Reduction Measures
July 1, 2007 -- Environmental Justice and Economic/Tech advisory boards
Jan. 1, 2008 -- Determination of 1990 baseline levels and report on biggest
Jan. 1, 2009 -- Approval of plan for maximum reduction by 2020
(update every 5 years)
Jan. 1, 2010 -- Adopt regulations for early action measures
Jan. 1, 2011 -- Adopt regulations on emission limits and reduction measure
which must be real, permanent, quantifiable, verifiable, and enforceable, in
addition to cap, in same period
Jan. 1, 2012 -- Emission limits begin
Jan. 2, 2020 -- Emission reductions achieved and stay in force beyond 2020
GHG Reduction Opportunities Identified by
Climate Action Team Report
Reductions in 2020
Cleaner Power Plants
What Else is California Doing?
•Renewable Portfolio Standards - 20%
•Million Solar Roofs
•AB 1007 - Alternative Fuels
•Fuel Cell Partnership
•Local Government Actions
•Energy Efficient Appliances
•Green Building Designs
•SB 1368 (Perata)
SB 1368 (Perata)
•GHG emissions from new or upgraded power plants for
baseload generation must be as low or lower than GHG
emissions from new, combined-cycle natural gas power
•GHG performance standard will apply to all in-state and outof-state generators that provide power to California.
•Electric Reliability -- ensures that the standards will not
negatively impact the reliability of the energy services that
California ratepayers receive.
•CEC and CPUC Regulations -- these Commissions are
required to adopt regulations through a public process.
•Rising cost of fuel
•Economic expansion of China, India and other
•Growing concerns on global warming
•War in the Middle East and too much reliance on
•Desire for a secure energy future
AB 32 sends a strong signal to the
market for clean technologies by
adopting an enforceable cap.
•There is still time to avoid the worst
impacts of climate change, if we take
strong action now.
Sir Nicholas Stern for
the Government of the
•The Review estimates that if we don’t
act, the overall costs and risks of
climate change will be equivalent to
losing at least 5% of global GDP each
year, now and forever.
•In contrast, the cost of action -reducing GHG emissions to avoid the
worst of climate change -- can be
limited to around 1% of global GDP
Draft Report Findings:
•World temperatures have risen to levels
not seen in at least 12,000 years,propelled
by rapid warming in the past 30 years.
•Greenland’s ice mass has been melting in
what NASA calls a “dramatic” rate of 41
cubic miles per year, far surpassing the
gain of 14 miles per year from snowfall.
•The levels of the oceans, expanding from
warmth and land-ice runoff, have risen at a
rate of about 2 millimeters a year between
1961 and 2003, and by more than 3
millimeters a year between 1993 and 2003.
We’re in an Environmental and
•Impacts of Global Warming
are visible and accelerating
•California is seizing this
opportunity to become the
home of clean technologies
and alternative fuels
P.O. Box 1833
Agoura Hills, CA 91376
Tel: (818) 865-1385