Ana Unruh Cohen - Sustainable Energy Institute

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Transcript Ana Unruh Cohen - Sustainable Energy Institute

International Climate Change Taskforce
• Established by the Center for American
Progress (USA), the Institute for Public
Policy Research (UK), and the Australia
Institute in 2004
• Co-chaired by Sen. Olympia Snowe and
Rt Hon. Stephen Byers MP
• International cross-sector collaboration,
including leaders from public service,
science, business and civil society in both
developed and developing countries
Summary of Main Recommendations
• Establish a long-term objective of preventing
global average temperature from rising more
than 2°C (3.6°F) above the pre-industrial level
• Building on UNFCCC and Kyoto Protocol, adopt
a global framework for the post-2012 period
• G8 governments adopt renewable portfolio
standard of at least 25% by 2025
• G8 governments double funding for energyefficiency and clean energy research,
development and demonstration
• G8 and other major economies form a G8+
Climate Group
Summary of Main Recommendations
• G8 countries shift their agricultural subsidies from
food crops to biofuels, especially from cellulosic
• All developed countries introduce national cap-andtrade systems for carbon emissions
• Governments increase investment in renewable
energy and energy-efficiency through Export Credit
• Developed countries help vulnerable countries
adapt to climate change and pursue the
establishment of international compensation fund
• Commit to raising public awareness of climate
Post-2012 Global Framework
• Builds on UNFCCC and Kyoto Protocol
• Developed countries take on deeper legally
binding reduction commitments which would be
periodically negotiated
• Place the US and Australia on a parallel track
with the aim of integrating them after 2012
• Establish a three-stage process for developing
countries, which aligns climate and development
objectives as their national circumstances permit
US and Australia Integration
• Establish domestic emission caps
• Adopt cap-and-trade schemes, which
could be harmonized with EU or Kyoto
trading system
• Participate in Clean Development
Mechanism and similar assistance
programs to help developing countries
Developing Countries Integration
Three stage process:
– First stage: align development and climate
goals, adopt policies that decouple economic
growth from emissions growth
– Second stage: Commit to reducing the carbon
intensity of selected economic sectors; move
towards carbon intensity targets
– Third stage: Take on binding emission targets
Developing Countries Integration
Potential criteria for moving through stages:
• Capability to mitigate – GDP per capita
• Potential to mitigate – degree of energy
efficiency, emissions per unit GDP,
emissions per capita
Global Framework Flexibility
The framework would continue to develop in
accordance with three further considerations:
• The need to meet a long-term climate objective,
by ensuring that short-term targets are linked to
and consistent with the long-term goal
• The gradual transition over the long-term
towards a system of equal per capita rights to
use the absorptive capacity of the atmosphere
• Developments in climate science and
technological innovations
Recommendations for the G8
• Double spending on research,
development and demonstration of energy
efficiency and low- or no-carbon
technology by 2010
• Establish national renewable portfolio of
25% by 2025
• Establish national cap-and-trade programs
• Establish a G8+ Climate Group
Emissions Trading Policy
• Domestic programs outside of the Kyoto
system could be tailored to allow for their
integration into a common international
emissions trading regime, as long as parity of
the credits could be achieved.
• Pending the establishment of national
programs in the US and Australia, programs
on the regional and state level have the
potential to make large reductions in CO2
Emissions Trading Policy: the G8’s role
• Recommend that all members develop and
implement national “cap and trade” programs
• Promote the development of common standards
for measurement and reporting of reductions as
well as clear and compelling domestic
compliance mechanisms to facilitate integration
of trading systems
• Promote the development of common standards
in their national systems for project-based
G8+ Climate Group
• G8 countries in tandem with other
critical countries, including developing
countries like China, India, Brazil.
• The world’s largest 6 developed countries
and the largest 6 developing countries
represent over 80% of world GDP, 70% of
global emissions and 60% of population.
• Small enough to effectively negotiate an
G8+ Climate Group Technology Partnerships
• Stimulating the market penetration of
highly efficient vehicles
• Promoting biofuels, especially from
cellulosic material, through the diversion of
agricultural subsidies
• Loan guarantees for CO2-capture-ready
integrated gasification combined cycle
(IGCC) power plants
Helping HEVs
• High Efficiency Vehicles (HEVs) have
emerged from new (hybrid-electric engines)
and mature (diesel engines) technologies.
• They offer attractive near-term options for
making significant reductions in fuel
consumption and CO2 emissions.
• However, even with fuel savings cost, their
higher initial cost remains a barrier to their
wider adoption.
Helping HEVs: the G8’s role
• Take steps to increase the deployment of
HEVs for the long term
• Possible policy options include:
– Efficiency standards
– Price incentives
– Government purchases
• Explicitly seek to engage key auto
manufactures in G8 countries as well as in
China, India and Korea
Promoting Biofuels
• Globally the transport sector accounts for
~ 1/3 of global CO2 emissions, of which the
G8 countries emit 60%.
• Many countries – including some large
developing countries – import a significant
fraction of their oil supply, creating major
foreign policy and environmental issues.
• An increased use of biofuels can reduce oil
demand and help alleviate international and
environmental problems.
Promoting Biofuels
• Currently, biofuels are only a minor component
of fuel in most countries because biofuels are
more expensive compared to fossil fuels.
• Most G8 countries already subsidize biofuel
crops under food programs so the application of
these subsidies to biofuel production should be
fairly straightforward.
• Refocusing subsidies could make biofuels pricecompetitive with gasoline, as well as reduce food
overproduction and lessen the distortion of
international food markets.
Promoting Biofuels: the G8’s Role
• Adopt a commitment to develop proposals
for shifting subsidies from food production
to biofuel production
• Individual countries’ actions need not be
• Common action would focus attention, and
make a strong statement of international
political will, in favor of biofuel programs
Cleaning Up Coal
• While we should aim to reduce subsidies to
fossil fuel projects over time and prioritize
support for renewables and energy efficiency,
coal is expected to retain a major role in the
power sector in several important parts of the
world for some time
• Without some strategy for dealing with
emissions from the coal sector, it may be
impossible to address climate change in these
Cleaning Up Coal
• IGCC plants provide the only cost effective
way to capture CO2 while using coal.
• They also offer near-term public health
benefits because their emissions of
traditional pollutants are far lower.
• However, IGCC plants are not currently
cost competitive with conventional plants.
An incentive is needed to spur the
construction of IGCC plants now.
Cleaning Up Coal: the G8’s role
• Commit to supporting IGCC through loan
guarantees under their Export Credit
Agencies (ECAs)
• Funds could come from diverting existing
ECA support to coal projects and in new
money, although not at the expense of
renewable or energy efficiency projects.