GLOBAL WARMING

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Transcript GLOBAL WARMING

Climate Change Issues
in India
By
Dr.C.Thomson Jacob,
Senior Programme Officer,
ENVIS Centre, Department of Environment.
Global Warming
• Global warming is the increase in the average measured
temperature of the Earth's near-surface air and oceans
since the mid-20th
century, and its projected
continuation.
• The average global air temperature near the Earth's
surface increased 0.74 ± 0.18 °C (1.33 ± 0.32 °F) during
the 100 years ending in 2005.
Source: Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
Greenhouse effect
103 Watt per m3
343 Watt per m3
240 Watt per m3
Source: Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
Co2 Concentration in 2007
The 2007 rise in global carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations is tied with 2005 as
the third highest since atmospheric measurements began in 1958. The red line
shows the trend together with seasonal variations. The black line indicates the
trend that emerges when the seasonal cycle has been removed. (Credit: NOAA)
Greenhouse gases
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Carbon dioxide (CO2)
Natural
Methane (CH4)
Nitrous oxide (N2O)
Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs)
Manmade
Perfluorocarbons (PFCs)
Sulphur hexafluoride (SF6)
Source: Kyoto Protocol- Annexure A
Rising levels of greenhouse gases
Source: Dr L Gohar and Prof K Shine, Dept. of Meteorology, University of Reading
Source: Stern Review
Energy utilisation
11%
18%
9%
5%
3%
11%
4%
39%
Fridge
TV
Fan
Computer
AC
Heater/Geyser
Appliances
Light
Energy
Production
3.1
India
7.6
24.8
COAL
RE
TN vs India
53.4
0.9
10.2
Coal
Gas
Oil
Hydro
Nuclear
Renewable
TN
3%
29%
42%
3%
16%
7%
Coal & Lignite
Gas
Hydro
Nuclear
Renewable
other
Impacts of Climate Change
Forests
Biodiversity
Impact of rise in temperature
of 1.8oC to 4oC
Agriculture
Coastlines
Climate Change Impact in India
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Rajasthan- Drought
Rann of Kutch – sea level rise
Mumbai-Salt water intrusion
Kerala –Productivity of Forest
Tamil Nadu-Coral bleaching
Ganges – Sedimentation problem
Sunderbans-Sea level raise
Northwest India-reduction In rice yield
Case study:1 Impact on Agriculture
Effect
on apple cultivation
• Kullu Valley, Himachal Pradesh
Experienced a number of crop failures in the
last 15 years
• Apple belt has moved 30 kilometers
[northwards] over the last 50 years
• Apple growers, says attributed poor
production to reduced snowfall and its
changed timing.
Source: Journal of Ecological Anthropology Vol. 10 2006
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Shift in Agriculture
Apple cultivation is affected in Kullu Valley
Apple belt has moved 30 KM nothwards
Forest resources were removed
2. Ganga under threat from warming
• Himalayan source of the Ganga is drying up
at a rate of 40 yards a year, nearly twice as
fast as two decades ago, and that some of
these glaciers might disappear by 2030.
• In the dry summer months, the Gangotri
glacier provides up to 70 percent of the water
of the Ganga.
• According to a UN climate report, the
shrinking glaciers also threaten Asia’s supply
of fresh water.
Source: New Indian Express
Source: New Indian Express
3. Impact on Coastal Orissa
• The Satavaya region, once a cluster of seven
villages.
• Only two out of the seven villages exists the
other five villages have been submerged.
• The Coastal villages have been affected by
cyclone and floods killing more than 30,000
people.
• The sea has ingressed to about 1.5 km into
Satavaya and 2.5 km into Kanakpur.
Satavaya has also lost 56% of its mangrove
vegetation.
Global Impacts
• The largest glacier on Mount Kenya has
lost 92% of its mass
• Sea levels have risen by 10 - 25 cm
• The thickness of sea ice in the arctic has
decreased by 40%.
• The Common Murre has advanced
breeding by 24 days per decade over the
past 50 years in response to higher
temperatures.
• The Baltimore oriole is shifting northward
and may soon disappear entirely from the
Baltimore area.
• Polar bear populations are coming under
threat as food becomes harder to hunt.
India’s Initiatives
• Signed UNFCC on 10th June 1992
• India ratified the Kyoto protocol
• India has a National Action Plan on Climate Change
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National Solar Mission
National Mission for Enhanced Energy Efficiency
National Mission on Sustainable Habitat
National Water Mission
National Mission for Sustaining the Himalayan Ecosystem
National Mission for a “ Green India”
National Mission for Sustainable Agriculture
– National Mission on Strategic Mission on Climate Change
India’s Initiatives
• India has a well developed policy,
legislative regulatory & programmatic
regime
• For promotion of Energy efficiency,
renewable energy, nuclear power, fuel
switching, energy pricing reform
addressing GHG emission
Per-capita Carbon –dioxide emission (Metric Tons)
Country
in metric tons
USA
20.01
Europe
9.40
Japan
9.87
China
3.60
Russia
11.71
India
1.02
World average
4.25
The impacts of climate change are not evenly
distributed – the poorest countries and people
will suffer earliest and most. And if and when
the damages appear it will be too late to
reverse the process. Thus we are forced to
look a long way ahead.
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