Nutritional content of fruit and vegetables Nutrient depletion in “fresh”

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Transcript Nutritional content of fruit and vegetables Nutrient depletion in “fresh”

R aw
E nergy
A ctive
L iving
The Nutritional &
Physical Benefits of
Edible Gardens
Presented by:
Deanne McMullen
Giuliano Perez
Session Outline
 Warm up activity
 What are the recommendations?
 Nutritional content of fruit and vegetables
 Nutrient depletion in “fresh” fruit and
 Benefits of authentic learning experiences
 What is the evidence for edible gardens?
 Tasting sensation
 Physical activity and the garden
What are the Recommendations?
Australian Dietary Guidelines for Children &
☺ Encourage and support breastfeeding
☺ Children and adolescents need sufficient nutritious foods to grow and
develop normally
Growth should be checked regularly for young children
Physical activity is important for all children and adolescents.
☺ Enjoy a wide variety of nutritious foods
Children and adolescents should be encouraged to:
• Eat plenty of vegetables, legumes and fruit.
• Eat plenty of cereals (including breads, rice, pasta and noodles),
preferably wholegrain.
• Include lean meat, fish, poultry and/or alternatives.
• Include milks, yoghurts, cheese and/or alternatives. Reduced fat milk
is not recommended for children under two years, because of their
high energy needs, but reduced fat varieties should be encouraged for
older children and adolescents.
• Choose water as a drink. Alcohol is not recommended for children
What are the Recommendations?
Australian Dietary Guidelines for Children &
Adolescents cont…
and care should be taken to:
Limit saturated fat and moderate total fat intake. Low fat diets are not
suitable for infants
Choose foods low in salt.
Consume only moderate amounts of sugars and foods containing
added sugars
What are the Recommendations?
Vegetables and Fruits
Number of Serves per day
4 – 7 years
Vegetables &
8 – 11 years
12 – 18 years
What are the Recommendations?
Serving Sizes
Starchy vegetables
1 med potato/yam, ½ med sweet potato, 1 med parsnip
Dark green leafy vegetables
½ c cabbage, spinach, silverbeet, broccoli, cauliflower, brussels
Legumes + other vegetables
1 c lettuce or salad vegetables
½ c broad beans, lentils, green beans, zucchini, mushrooms,
tomatoes, capsicum, cucumber, sweetcorn, turnips, swede,
sprouts, celery, eggplant, etc
What are the Recommendations?
Serving Sizes
1 piece med size fruit, e.g. apple, orange, mango, mandarin,
banana, pear
2 pieces smaller fruit, e.g. apricots, kiwi, plum, fig
About 8 strawberries
About 20 grapes or cherries
½ c fruit juice
¼ med melon, e.g. rockmelon
Dried fruit, e.g. 4 dried apricot halves
1 ½ tbsp sultanas
1 c diced pieces / canned fruit
“Go for 2 & 5” Campaign
Population-based messages
 Poor diet is a key risk factor for overweight and
 Evidence that eating the recommended amount of
fruit and vegetables contributes to good health,
reduces overweight, and protects against a number
of diseases
In the Classroom
☺Ensure positive messages about eating more fruits and
vegetables daily
☺ Avoid focusing on overweight and obesity as the
reason for improved eating habits
Nutritional Content of Fruit and
• Fibre
– Soluble
– Insoluble
– Resistant starch
• Vitamins
– Vitamin A (retinol)
– B-carotene
– Vitamin C
Nutritional Content of Fruit and
• Minerals
Iron & zinc (legumes)
• Antioxidants
Vitamins A, C, E
Links between Disease Risk and
Consumption of Fruit and
Increased consumption of fruit and vegetables
has been linked with a marked decrease in:
Cardiovascular disease
Type 2 diabetes
CVA (stroke)
Obesity (link is probable)
The “Fresh is Best”
Nutrient Depletion over Time
Green Beans
Nutrient Depletion over Time
Nutrient Depletion over Time
Food Miles
“Put simply, 'food miles' is a measure of how far food travels - from
paddock to plate - and is an indication of how environmentally-friendly
it is. Food freight - especially by air and road - consumes fuel and
energy, and releases greenhouse pollution, affecting the global
(Australian Conservation Foundation)
• The more “food miles” fruits and vegetables have done, the
lower the nutritional value due to time in transit
Fruit and vegetables eaten fresh
from the garden will have the highest
nutritional content possible
New Labelling Laws
• Revised labelling requirements for unpackaged fresh
food, unpackaged processed food and fresh food in
• Standard 1.2.11 Country of Origin
“…declaration on a label or a sign near the food that
states country of origin, and not just the word
‘imported’. These products, if produced locally, must
be labelled as ‘Product of Australia’”
 Therefore it will be easier to tell if fruit and vegetables
are grown locally
Authentic Learning Experiences
• Authentic learning experiences are those that are
personally relevant from the learner’s perspective
and situated within appropriate social contexts.
• The idea is that knowledge and skills are learnt in
contexts that reflect the way they will be useful in
real life
• Connectedness to the world: a combination of realworld public problems, and students’ personal
What is the Evidence??
Based on the literature, the key benefits that school
gardening can deliver are:
 enhanced nutrition
access to fresh/better tasting food
enjoyment of nature
improved overall health
enhanced mental health
improved food security
self-expression and fulfilment
stress relief
practice of traditional culture
physical activity
Source: Growing Communities “School Community Garden Project
Further References
• School-based community gardens: Re-establishing healthy
relationships with food
Shawn Somerset PhD, Richard Ball, Melanie Flett & Rebecca Geissman
Journal of the HEIA Vol 12, No. 2, 2005
• Evaluation of the Outreach School Garden Project: Building the
capacity of two Indigenous remote school communities to integrate
nutrition into the core curriculum
Antonietta Viola
Health Promotion Journal jof Australia, 2006: 17 (3)
• The Effects of School Gardens on Students and Schools:
Conceptualization and Considerations for Maximizing Healthy
Emily J. Ozer PhD
Health Education and Behaviour, Vol. XX(X): 1-18
• Community Gardens: Lessons Learned from California Healthy Cities
and Communities
Joan Twiss, MA, Joy Dickinson, BS, CHES, Shirley Duma, MA, Tanya Kleinman, BA, Heather Paulsen, MS,
and Liz Rilveria, MPA
American Journal of Public Health, September 2003, Vol 93, No. 9
Physical Activity and the Garden
• For gardening to be identified as a 'positive' physical
activity source - the energy applied needs to be
'moderate - vigorous' for 20-30 minutes to realise
associated benefits
• Most gardening groups consist of one person
'doing' and several 'watching'
• To be a 'physical' focused activity it would need
planning and opportunity
• Try to incorporate projects involving major work
(digging, lifting, toting, sawing etc) such as
• These activities would need gross motor skill usage
and would require strength, coordination, power and
possibly stamina
Source: Healthy Schools Van
Physical Activity and the Garden
• A consideration could be for those who do little or
nothing - this is a start to getting involved and being
'more active'.
• This could result if 'channeled' well into future
benefits for the student - BUT this would not really
be categorised as a physical activity outcome in the
first sense, even though it could have a variety of
positive personal outcomes for a student.
• Gardening could be used as an activity to realise a
number of outcomes in a several key learning areas the physical activity area would be the lesser (least)
of the beneficiaries.
Source: Healthy Schools Van