Climate change

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Transcript Climate change

Climate Change Legislation
Impact on FHE
Stephen Boyle
Senior Policy Officer
19th January 2007
Content
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SEPA
Climate Change
International and Domestic goals
Climate Change legislation in the UK
Climate Change legislation which impacts on
FHE
• Concluding Remarks
Scottish Environment
Protection Agency
Who we are
• Non-departmental public
body set up by
Environment Act 1995
• Budget of £68m (06/07)
• 54% from Scottish
Executive Grant in Aid
• 46% from charging
schemes
• 22 offices
• 1270 staff
What we do
Our responsibilities are to regulate:
• Activities that may pollute water;
• Activities that may pollute air;
• Storage, transport and disposal of waste; and
• Keeping and disposal of radioactive waste
How we do it!
We protect and improve
the environment through:
• Regulation
• Raising environmental
awareness
• Environmental economics
• The planning system
• Advising Government and
Scottish Executive on
environmental issues
Climate Change
Concentration of Carbon Dioxide and Methane
Have Risen Greatly Since Pre-Industrial Times
Carbon dioxide: 33% rise
BW 5
The MetOffice. Hadley Center for Climate Prediction and Research.
Methane: 100% rise
Arctic ice cover
• There is evidence
that both Arctic and
Antarctic ice cover is
reducing
• Thomas et al, 2006
state that the near
coastal thinning
rates (Greenland)
have increased
substantially since
the 1990’s
“Antarctica sends 500 billion tonne warning of the effects of
The Independent
global warming”
Courtesy of Michael Bentley
Larsen B
ice shelf
through
time (19472002)
Climate change in Scotland
(SNIFFER report, 2006)
• Annual average
24-hour
maximum
temperature over
90 year period, in
3 regions of
Scotland
•Very varied, non
monotonic
Average
Temperature
Snow cover
Source A Handbook of Climate Trends
across Scotland SNIFFER 2006
Wetter winters
Winter Flows - River Nith
at Friars Carse 1958-2000
20
40
30
20
Winter
5 per. Mov. Avg. (Winter)
Linear (Winter)
10
0
18
16
14
12
10
8
6
40
35
30
25
300
Flow (cumecs)
45
Annual winter flow
5 year moving average
Linear (Annual winter flow)
350
R.Tay at Ballathie winter
flows (Oct-Mar),1958-1996
Annual winter flow
5 year moving average
Linear (Annual winter flow)
250
200
150
20
15
1957 1961 1965 1969 1973 1977 1981 1985 1989 1993
100
1958 1962 1966 1970 1974 1978 1982 1986 1990 1994
2000
1997
1994
1991
1988
1985
1982
1979
1976
1973
1970
1967
1964
1961
1958
1955
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20
00
50
R.Teith at Bridge of Teith winter
flows (Oct-Mar),1957-1996.
1952
0
55
Flow (cumecs)
Winter
5 per. Mov. Avg. (Winter)
Linear (Winter)
4
2
1949
Flow (cumecs)
50
Flow (cumecs)
70
60
Winter Flows, R Kelvin
at Killermont, 1949-2000
Extreme events – floods
Photo: SEPA
Species ranges moving uphill & north
Mountain Ringlet
Mountain Ringlet has moved uphill
In 2004, 50% fewer km squares
than in the1970s
Scotch Argus has moved north
In 2004, 17% fewer km squares
than in the1970s
By Aldina M. A. Franco, Jane K. Hill,
Yvonne C. Collingham, Richard Fox,
Brian Huntley, David B. Roy and Chris D.
Thomas
Universities of York and Durham
CEH Monks Wood, Butterfly
Conservation
Funded by NERC
Scotch Argus
Earlier Flowering
1978-2001
3 weeks
early
Snowdrop
Wild Daffodil
Winter aconite
2 weeks
early
Bluebell
Dog violet
1 week
early
Lesser celandine
Courtesy:
Prof. Fred Last,
Longniddry
Broom
Wild cherry
Longer growing seasons
Fife lawn cut for an extra 29 days in 2003 than in 1984
duration of cutting (days)
245
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195
Woodland Trust Picture Library
1985
1995
2005
year
Courtesy: Dr. Tim Sparks, CEH
International and Domestic
Goals
International and Domestic Goals
• Kyoto Agreement; to reduce CO2 emissions
below 1990 levels by 12.5% in the period
2008-2012
• UK Domestic goal; 20% reduction in CO2
emissions below 1990 levels by 2010
• Energy White Paper Feb 2003; 60% reduction
by 2050
Climate Change Legislation in the
UK
Current Climate Change Legislation
• The Climate Change Levy (CCL)
• Climate Change Agreements (CCA)
• Building Regulations
• UK Emissions Trading Scheme
• EU Emissions Trading Scheme
• Pollution Prevention and Control (IPPC)
In addition
• Voluntary Agreements
• Enhanced information provision and advise to
business
Proposed Legislation and Measures
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Renewable Transport Fuel Obligation (RTFO)
Expansion to the EU ETS
Energy Performance Commitment (EPC)
Voluntary benchmarking and reporting
Climate Change Legislation
which impacts on FHE
EU Emissions Trading Scheme
• The EU Emissions Trading Directive (the
Directive) establishes a scheme for
greenhouse gas emission allowance trading
within the Community.
• It aims to promote reductions of greenhouse
gas emissions in a cost-effective and
economically efficient manner.
• The Directive was transposed into UK law
through the UK Greenhouse Gas Emissions
Trading Scheme Regulations 2003.
• The Scheme commenced on 1 January 2005.
EU ETS requirements
• A qualifying installation must apply for a permit and
submit a Monitoring and Reporting (M&R) plan to their
relevant authority for approval
• They will be issued allowances for the each Phase
period from the National Allocation Plan (NAP) based
on their historic emissions
• At the end of each year the site will calculate their
annual carbon dioxide emissions in line with their M&R
plan and have this verified by an independent UKAS
accredited verifier
• The installation will then surrender sufficient allowances
to cover their annual emission or open themselves up
for civil penalties and enforcement action
Source Scottish Energy Study
Scottish Executive 2006
EU Energy Performance of Buildings
Directive
Aim
• To Improve the Energy performance of buildings
through cost effective measures
• Harmonisation of building standards across the
community in line with the most ambitious state targets
Measures
• Methodology for Calculating the energy performance of
buildings
• Application of building standards on new and existing
buildings
• Certification schemes for all new buildings
• Regular inspection and assessment of boiler/heating
and cooling installations
Energy Performance Commitment
Aim
• Energy Review (2006) commitment to
reduce carbon emissions from large
non-energy intensive organisations by
1.2 million tonnes of carbon per year by
2020
Energy Performance Commitment
How
• Organisations who use more than 3000
MWh’s of electricity from half hourly
logging electricity meters will be
covered in the scheme
• Participating organisations will be
required to purchase, in an auction,
sufficient allowances to cover their
carbon emissions
Energy Performance Commitment
At the end of each scheme year the
organisation will be required to report
its total energy use and surrender
allowances to cover their carbon
emissions
• Failure to do so will result in civil
penalties
• Auctioning revenue will be redistributed
to participating organisations annually
in line with their past year performance
Concluding Remarks
Thank You
[email protected]
01786 455966
Climate change
“Climate change presents very serious global
risks, and it commands an urgent global
response…it is the greatest and widest-ranging
market failure ever seen”
(Stern Review 2006)
“Climate change is a far greater threat to the world
than global terrorism” (Sir David King, Government’s
Chief Scientific Advisor)
“… the impacts of global warming are such that I
have no hesitation in describing it as a ‘weapon
of mass destruction’” (Sir John Houghton, former
chief executive of the UK Meteorological Office)