Elements Powerpoint - Warren County Schools

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Transcript Elements Powerpoint - Warren County Schools

Music: An Appreciation, Brief, 8th edition | Roger Kamien
2014 © McGraw-Hill Education
Music: vital part of human society
• Provides entertainment and emotional release; accompanies
• Heard everywhere in modern life
Recorded music is a 20th-century innovation
• Internet access
• Portable audio
Live performance: special excitement
• Experience affected by emotional state of both performer and
Evaluating music performances
• Background music vs. active listening
• Perceptive listening enhances enjoyment
• Knowledge of musical elements enhances perception
2014 © McGraw-Hill Education
SOUND: pitch, dynamics, tone color
Our world is filled with sounds
•Sounds can be pleasant or unpleasant
•Humans are able to focus on specific sounds
•We can ignore sounds that do not interest us
•Begins as a result of vibrating object
•Transmitted through a medium: air
•Causes our eardrums to vibrate
•Impulses sent to brain for processing
MUSIC: organization of sounds in time
Four main categories of musical sounds
• pitch • dynamics • tone color • duration
2014 © McGraw-Hill Education
pitch: highness or lowness of sound
Determined by frequency of vibration
•Fast vibration = high pitch; slow vibration = low pitch
•Generally, smaller vibrating objects = higher pitches
In music, definite pitch is a tone
•Tones have specific frequencies
e.g., 440 cycles (vibrations) per second = A)
•Irregular vibrations create sounds of indefinite pitch
Interval: distance between 2 tones
•Octave: doubling/halving of frequency
•Tones an octave apart seem to blend together
Western music divides octave into 12 tones
Nonwestern music may divide into different number
Range: distance between voice or instrument’s highest &
lowest possible tones
2014 © McGraw-Hill Education
Relative loudness of a sound
• Related to amplitude of vibration producing sound
• Changes in dynamics may be sudden or gradual
Accent: tone played louder than tones near it
Italian terms used to indicate dynamics
• Extremes: ppp, pppp, fff, ffff
• Crescendo: gradually louder
• Decrescendo (diminuendo):
gradually softer
2014 © McGraw-Hill Education
tone color (timbre)
• Quality that identifies an instrument’s sound
• Can be bright, dark, mellow, etc.
Changes in tone color create variety and contrast
Tone colors add a sense of continuity
Specific melodies with specific tone colors
Unlimited variety of tone colors
Composers frequently blend sounds of instruments to
create new tone colors
Modern electronic technique create new tone colors
2014 © McGraw-Hill Education
listening outlines, vocal music
guides, and properties of sound
Listening Outlines & Vocal Music Guides
•Helps focus attention on musical events as they occur
•Preceded by description of the music’s main features
•Listening Outline: points out notable musical sounds
•Vocal Music Guide: helps the listener follow the thought, story,
or drama
*Suggestion: While listening to one passage, look
ahead to what is next
2014 © McGraw-Hill Education
Listen, then follow the listening outline to
this selection in CONNECT MUSIC
• Tone colors through instrumentation
• Dynamic contrasts
The Firebird, scene 2 (1910)
Igor Stravinsky
2014 © McGraw-Hill Education
Listen, then follow the listening outline to
this selection in CONNECT MUSIC
Listen for:
• Tone colors
• Repeated note melody
• Improvised solos
• Muted brass instruments
C-Jam Blues (1942)
Duke Ellington
2014 © McGraw-Hill Education
voices and instruments
Voices: unique ability to fuse words & musical tones
• Voice range is based on physical makeup & training
• Voice classifications
soprano (highest)
bass (lowest)
• Vocal music is frequently performed with instrumental
2014 © McGraw-Hill Education
Musical instruments: any mechanism (other than voice)
that produces musical sounds
•Western instruments: 6 broad categories
•Made in different sizes for range variety
•Tone color may vary with the register
•Provide entertainment; used for accompaniment
•Instruments’ popularity rises and falls with changing musical
2014 © McGraw-Hill Education
string instruments
Sound produced by vibrating tight cable
shorter the string and tighter the tension, higher the pitch
(& vice versa)
Orchestral bowed instruments
• violin • viola
• cello (violoncellon)
• bass (double bass)
Common playing techniques
• pizzicato
• vibrato
• tremolo
• double stop • harmonics • mute
Some string instruments not played with bow
Guitar & harp use plectrum (small wedge; pick)
2014 © McGraw-Hill Education
woodwind instruments
Traditionally, woodwinds were made of wood
•In the 20th century, metal & plastic became common
•The longer the tube, the lower the pitch
– Holes along instrument change the length of the tube
Main orchestral woodwinds and ranges:
Woodwinds: single note instrument
Sounds produced by blowing (player’s breath)
• “whistle mouthpiece” • single reed • double reed
• saxophone: single reed instrument; common in jazz
2014 © McGraw-Hill Education
brass instruments
Orchestral brasses (in order of range)
•trumpet, french horn, trombone, tuba
•cornet, baritone horn, & euphonium used mainly in concert and in
marching bands
Sound produced by blowing into mouthpiece
•Vibration of player’s lips produces sound
•Sound exits through flared end called bell
•Pitch changed in 2 ways:
― Pressure of player’s lips (together and against mouthpiece)
― Lengthening the instrument via slide or valves
Trombone uses sliding tubes
Others use valves connected to additional tubing
Generally, the longer the tube, the lower the pitch
•Tone color is altered by inserting mute into bell
Brass provides power and emphasis in music
2014 © McGraw-Hill Education
percussion instruments
Sound (generally) produced by striking, shaking, or rubbing the
Instruments of definite pitch produce tones
Those of indefinite pitch produce noise-like sounds
Membranes, pieces of wood or metal vibrate
Percussionists must play many instruments
Percussion traditionally emphasizes rhythm
20th-century music: greater use of percussion
2014 © McGraw-Hill Education
electronic instruments
Produce or amplify sound using electronics
– Invented ~1904, significant impact only after 1950
– Modern technology blurs lines between instrument types, recording,
computer, and hybrid devices
• Tape studio: main electronic tool of 1950s
• Synthesizers came into use in 1960s
– Huge machines first built in mid-1950s
– Analog synthesis dominated until ~1980
– Digital (FM) synthesis came to forefront in 1980s
Effects devices were integrated into digital synthesizers
– Sampling technology advanced in 1990s
• MIDI (1983) allowed connection of devices
• Small computers develop in 1970s & 80s
• Modern composers connect these devices, use software, and write
new types of music
2014 © McGraw-Hill Education
Listen, then follow the listening outline to
this selection in CONNECT MUSIC
Listen for:
• Themes, variations
• Contrast
• Repetition
• Various orchestral instruments
The Young Person’s Guide to the Orchestra, Op. 34 (1946)
Benjamin Britten
2014 © McGraw-Hill Education
• Flow of music through time
• Particular arrangement of note lengths
– Recurrent pulsation
– Divides music into equal units of time
– Grouping of beats
– 2s and 3s; strong and weak beats
– Accent: note is emphasized
– Syncopation: emphasis placed on an unexpected note or beat
2014 © McGraw-Hill Education
• The speed of the beat; the pace
associated with emotional effect
• Tempo indicated at beginning of piece
– As with dynamics, Italian terms are used
– Molto, non troppo, accelerando, ritardando
• Metronome: indicates exact tempo
2014 © McGraw-Hill Education
Written music stores information
Allows composer to communicate their ideas to others
Notating pitch
Letter names: A B C D E F G
Grand Staff
− G Clef or Treble
− F Clef or Bass
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notating pitch
Keyboard note names with notation
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notating rhythm
music notation indicates length of tone in relation to other
tones in the piece
How note looks indicates
Notating Silence
Rests indicate
notated silence
2014 © McGraw-Hill Education
notating meter
• Time signature indicates the meter of a piece of music
Appears at beginning of piece
Appears again whenever meter changes
Written as two numbers, one above other
top number: how many beats per measure
bottom number: what type note counts 1 beat
Common and cut time; duple and triple meter
The Score
Includes music for every instrument
Can include 20+ lines of music at once
2014 © McGraw-Hill Education
A series of single notes that add up to a recognizable whole
Begins, moves, ends
Tension and release
Stepwise vs. leap motion
Legato vs. staccato
Made of phrases (parts)
Sequence within melodies
Cadence: complete vs. incomplete
Over the Rainbow (1938)
Harold Arlen
Listen, then follow the
listening outline to this
selection in CONNECT MUSIC
2014 © McGraw-Hill Education
• The way chords are constructed and how they follow each
• Chord: three or more tones sounded at once
– chord is simultaneous tones
– Melody is a series of individual tones
• Progression: how chords follow each other
Consonance and Dissonance
• Stable, restful chords (consonant)
• Unstable, tense chords (dissonant)
degree of dissonance—more and less dissonant
• Resolution: movement away from a dissonance, towards
2014 © McGraw-Hill Education
the triad
• Simplest, most basic chord
Made up of three notes
Notated on 3 adjacent lines or spaces
• Tonic: triad built on 1st scale note
Most stable, restful chord
Pieces usually begin and end on this chord
• Dominant: triad built on 5th scale note
Most unstable, tense chord
Dominant to tonic movement feels conclusive
Broken Chords (Arpeggios)
• Chord tones sounded in series
2014 © McGraw-Hill Education
Centering of a melody or harmony around a central note
The Major Scale
Whole steps and half steps occurring in a predetermined order
bright, happy sound
The Minor Scale
Whole steps and half steps occurring in a different
predetermined order
dark, sad sound
2014 © McGraw-Hill Education
Listen, then follow the listening outline to
this selection in CONNECT MUSIC
• Harmony for variety and movement
Prelude in e minor for piano, Op. 28, No. 4 (1839)
Frédéric Chopin
2014 © McGraw-Hill Education
key signature
• Pieces using major scales—major key
• Pieces using minor scales—minor key
• Number of sharps or flats played determines scale and key
– Also determines key signature
– Key signature notated at beginning of piece between clef sign and
time signature
The Chromatic Scale
Utilizes all 12 notes within the octave
– Includes both black and white piano keys
– This scale does not define a key
2014 © McGraw-Hill Education
modulation: change of key
• Provides contrast within longer piece
• Modulation like temporary shift in gravity
new tone and key becomes “home”
Tonic Key
The main key of a piece
• Modulations away to different keys usually return to the tonic
• Return to tonic creates feeling of resolution and conclusion
return to tonic usually occurs near end of piece
2014 © McGraw-Hill Education
Layering of sound, how layers relate
Monophonic Texture
Single, unaccompanied melody
literally “one sound”
Polyphonic Texture
Two or more equally important melodies sounding simultaneously
Homophonic Texture
One melody with chordal accompaniment
Changes of Texture
Within a piece, creates variety and contrast
2014 © McGraw-Hill Education
Listen, then follow the listening outline to
this selection in CONNECT MUSIC
• Contrasting textures
Farandole from L’Arlesienne Suite No. 2 (1879)
Georges Bizet
2014 © McGraw-Hill Education
Organization of musical elements in time
Techniques that create musical form
•Repetition—restating musical ideas
•Contrast—avoiding monotony with new ideas
•Variation—reworking ideas to keep them new
Types of Musical Form
2014 © McGraw-Hill Education
Listen, then follow the listening outline to
this selection in CONNECT MUSIC
• Ternary form
Dance of the Reed Pipes from Nutcracker Suite (1892)
Peter Ilyich Tchaikovsky
2014 © McGraw-Hill Education
types of musical form
Listen, then follow the listening outline to this selection
Bourée from Suite in e minor for lute (1710)
Johann Sebastian Bach
2014 © McGraw-Hill Education
• Characteristic way of using melody, rhythm, tone, color,
dynamics, harmony, texture, and form
• Western art music can be divided into:
Middle Ages, 450-1450
Renaissance, 1450-1600
Baroque, 1600-1750
Classical, 1750-1820
Romantic, 1820-1900
20th Century to 1945
1945 to present
• Shaped by political, economic, social, and intellectual
2014 © McGraw-Hill Education