Transcript Chapter 4

Chapter 4
Types of Reactions in Solution and
their Stoichiometry
Types of Chemical Reactions:
1. Precipitation Reactions (metathesis
reactions) again- Table 4.1 on page 125 is
Ex - Write balanced molecular, ionic, and net
ionic equations for any reaction that occurs
when the following are mixed:
a. BaCl2 + Na2SO4
b. KCl + Na2SO4
2. Acid-Base Reactions - (Neutralization)
When writing acid-base reactions in net
ionic form:
strong acids are written as H+
strong bases are written as OH-
Ex - Write the reactions for HClO4 + Ca(OH)2
3. Reduction-Oxidation Reactions (Redox
These reactions involve the transfer
of electrons.
LEO goes GER
3 CuCl2 + 2 Al  2 AlCl3 + 3 Cu
Cu goes from a +2 to a 0 oxidation state so
it is reduced. (the oxidizing agent)
Al goes from a 0 oxidation state to a +3
oxidation state so it is oxidized. (the
reducing agent)
Rules for assigning oxidation states:
1. Free elements = 0
2. The oxidation state of a monatomic ion
= its charge
3. Oxygen = -2, in peroxides such as Na2O2
it is -1
4. H = +1
5. F = -1
6. If the compound is neutral the sum of
the oxidation numbers is equal to zero. If it
is charged (polyatomic ion) they add to the
charge of the ion.
Ex - Find the oxidation number of each
element in H2SO4.
Solution Stoichiometry
Ex - What mass of NaCl is required to
precipitate all the silver ions from 25.0 mL of a
0.0500 M solution of AgNO3?
Titration - Add a solution of known
concentration to a solution of unknown
concentration. Stoichiometry can determine
the concentration of the unknown.
Ex - What is the
molarity of a NaOH
solution if 48.0 mL is
needed to neutralize
35.0 mL of 0.144 M
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