Metathesis Problems (and Some Solutions) Identified

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Transcript Metathesis Problems (and Some Solutions) Identified

Chapter 5: Nomenclature
Chemistry 1020: Interpretive chemistry
Andy Aspaas, Instructor
Binary ionic compounds
• Ionic compound: combination of metal cation and
nonmetal anion
• Main-group metals in groups 1, 2, and 3
– Form cations, charge can be predicted by group
– Metal cations have the same name as the
• Nonmetal: take root of element name and add -ide
– Charge predicted by taking 8 - group number
• In naming compounds, cation is named first and
anion second
Ionic compounds with transition metal cations
• Transition metals can produce ions with varying
• When naming these compounds, you must indicate
the charge of the cation in roman numerals after the
cation name
– Ex. PbCl2 must have Pb2+ cations
– Name: lead(II) chloride
Compounds containing only nonmetals
• Binary compounds with only nonmetals are one type
of molecules
• The first element given in the formula is named first,
with its full name
• The second element is named as if it were an anion
• Use Greek prefixes to denote subscripts
– 1=mono, 2=di, 3=tri, 4=tetra, 5=penta, 6=hexa,
7=hepta, 8=octa
Polyatomic ions
• Polyatomic ion: a molecule (composed of 2 or more
atoms) that carries a charge
• Oxyanion: one atom of a given element, bonded to
different numbers of oxygen atoms.
– If there are 2 different oxyanions for a given
element, use suffixes to differentiate their name
– “ite” for ion with fewer oxygens
– “ate” for ion with greater number of oxygens
Polyatomic ions
Polyatomic ions
• Use prefixes if more than one oxyanion for an
ClO– hypochlorite
ClO2– chlorite
ClO3– chlorate
ClO4– perchlorate
• Oxyanions for a given element have the same
charge, but added hydrogens decrease the charge
CO32– carbonate
HCO3– hydrogen carbonate, or bicarbonate
Nomenclature of compounds with polyatomic ions
• Type 1: Cation has known charge
– Use cation name and anion name
– Ex. Na2CO3, KH2PO4, NH4ClO3, Al2(SO3)3
• Type 2: Cation has several possible charges
– Use cation name and roman numeral for cation
charge, then anion name
– Ex. CuSO4, Fe(CN)3, Ti(CrO4)2, Ag2SO3
Nomenclature of acids
• Acid: compound with one or more H+ ions attached to an
– Acids which do not contain oxygen
• Name hydro ______ic acid (with element root in the
• HF, HCl, HBr, H2S
– Acids which contain oxygen
• Use oxyanion name, but change suffix
• “ite” becomes “ous”
• “ate” becomes “ic”
• H2SO4, H2SO3, HNO2, H3PO4