Periods 1-2 Review PPT
Transcript Periods 1-2 Review PPT
Migrations of Homo sapiens
“Peopling of the Earth”
40,000 years ago
40,000 years ago
1600 B.C.E.-500 C.E.
100,000 years ago
as many as 60,000
Possible coastal routes of human migration
Possible landward routes of human migration
Migrations in Oceania
How did geography shape the migration?
How did the Austronesian migration differ
from other early patterns of human
Remains discovered at Blombos
Cave are one example of the
more complex culture some
humans were developing as
many as 90,000 years ago.
View looking out
of Blombos Cave
to the Indian
The people who lived in this
• Made sharp stone spear
points using methods that
appeared in Eurasia only
50,000 or more years later.
• Made objects from bone, the
earliest use of this material
from the cave
Ochre piece with scrape
marks. A person may have
scraped the ochre to
get powder to use to make
• Scored bits of bone and
ochre with marks that may
have had symbolic meaning.
Key Concept 1.2
Farming changed the way humans lived:
People no longer
Food surpluses led to
& early humans
to be nomads
to farm & domesticate animals
Farming villages became established along
river valleys for their good soil & irrigation
The Neolithic Revolution
•Sometimes termed the
•Humans begin to slowly domesticate plant and
animal stocks in Southwest Asia.
•Agriculture requires nomadic peoples to become
•Populations begin to rise in areas where plant
and animal domestication occurs.
One of the major
changes is reflected in
this frieze on a
wall in Mesopotamia
(today Iraq) :
which reflects the
the development of…
To Farm or Not to Farm???
Agriculture Slowly Spreads
Domestication of Plants and Animals
also known as
Big Eras 4-9
Big Era 2
Big Era 3
10,000 years ago
1,000 years ago
how people lived
People Settle & Pop. grows
Growth of towns, then Cities
Division of Labor (Specialization)
Social Stratification & Patriarchy!!
Key Concept 1.3:
The Development and Interactions of Early
Agricultural, Pastoral and Urban Societies.
Note. 2 Exceptions to river valley pattern
Common Characteristics ??
Opportunity to adapt environment
Suitable for domesticated
Relatively stable (a bit hot) climate
River Valley Civilizations (with exception of Americas)
Early River Valley Civilizations
•Flooding of Tigris and Euphrates unpredictable
•No natural barriers
•Limited natural resources for making tools or buildings
•Flooding of the Nile predictable
•Nile an easy transportation link between Egypt’s villages
•Deserts were natural barriers
•Indus flooding unpredictable
•Mountains, deserts were natural barriers
•Huang He flooding unpredictable
•Mountains, deserts natural barriers
•Geographically isolated from other ancient civilizations
•Mountains and ocean natural barriers
•Warm temperatures and moderate rainfall
•Geographically isolated from other ancient civilizations
Core and foundational civilizations developed in a
variety of geographical and environmental settings
where agriculture flourished.
Mesopotamia in the Tigris and Euphrates
Egypt in the Nile River Valley
Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa in the Indus
Shang in the Yellow River or Huang He
Olmecs in Mesoamerica
Chavín in Andean South America
The first states emerged within core
Early civilizations based around city-states
Power new states replaced city-states as
main political unit.
Rulers were viewed as divine.
Kept power by maintaining a strong military.
Competition between city-states and
nomads lead to an increase in conflict!
Examples of early empires.
Mesopotamia- started as citystates (4000BC)
Rulers viewed as representatives of
Empires emerged as citystates competed for
Akkad (2330-2100 BCE)
Sargon the Great: Built first empire c.
Hammurabi: King of Babylon c.1792 BCE
Fierce military tactics
*** Why so much conflict in this region
Sargon of Akkad:
The World’s First Empire
Key Civilizations in Mesopotamia
Babylonian Empire (1800-1500 B.C.)
Most important king was Hammurabi
282 laws that formed the basis of the Babylonian legal system
Different punishments for rich & poor
“Eye for an eye”
Egyptian Religion & Politics
Considered gods on Earth who ruled over gov’t, religion, & the military
This is known as a theocracy
*Comparison: Mesopotamian kings were representatives of gods, but they themselves were not considered gods
Egyptian Religion & Politics
Egyptians believed kings had eternal spirits & Built
pyramids as tombs for pharaohs (resting places from
which their rulers could reign forever after death)
1600 BC – 1027 BC
Yellow / Huang He River Valley & Yangtze
Mandate of Heaven- power to rule came from
Dynastic cycle linked to
POLITICAL AND MILITARY
herders) interact quite often
with “urban societies”
2 examples would be
through new weapons and
modes of transportation.
Examples: Iron weapons
What would the effect be on
Architecture and Urban
Specialization, conquest, and
trade promote large building
Usually the most
prominent building in the
Made of mud bricks.
Dedicated to the chief
god or goddess of the
Pyramids & Monuments
Temple of Queen
Planned Cities: Indus
Arts and Artisanship
Promoted by the Elites
(Political and Religious)
Sumerian Religious Sculpture
C. 2400 BCE
Made of marble.
Roughly 30 inches tall.
This is an example of a
Humans and gods were
thought to be physically
present in their statues.
Egyptian Wall Paintings
Located in his tomb.
Systems of Record Keeping
Eventually would branch out to include other forms of “writing”.
- cuneiform – Mesopotamia
- hieroglyphs – Egypt
- alphabets –
C. 3000 BCE in
A reed stylus was
used to make
impressions on clay
tablets which were
then baked or dried.
States would eventually use writing to develop legal codes.
Often reflected existing hierarchies and helped the government rule over the people.
The Code of Hammurabi
Read the Code of
Hammurabi excerpt on
p. 13 in the Duiker
What do these points of
law from the Code of
Hammurabi reveal to
New Religious Beliefs
The Vedic religion – Indus River Valley
Hebrew monotheism – Palestine
Zoroastrianism – Persia
New religious beliefs develop later in the
period that in most cases offer a contrast to
the “polytheistic” beliefs of early religions.
The Vedic Religions
Religion of Aryans, an IndoEuropean group
(pastoralists), that migrated
into the Indus River Valley
Name comes from the
collection of sacred texts
called the Vedas.
Precursor to Hinduism.
Religion in Mesopotamian Hearth
At first polytheistic, gods had human
Toward the end of the period, Zoroastrianism, a
monotheistic religion similar to Judaism emerged
and will be most noted in the next period with
Abraham considered the
“Father” of Hebrew
monotheism also known as
Judaism. c. 2000 BCE
Worship of “one god” is
Moses and the 10
Christianity and Islam have
connections to Judaism.
Founder was Zoroaster who
was born in Persia c. 660
Monotheistic: Ahuramazda is
the only god.
***Man has “free will” to
follow who he chooses.
TRADE: Regional and
Trade begins locallyregionaltransregional.
Goods, culture, and technology are all exchanged.
Diffusion- the spread of ideas and goods.
Mesopotamia and the Indus Valley
Harappan seals have been
found in Mesopotamia which
leads us to believe that the
2 regions trade goods.
The Indus Valley had cotton
which probably was what
sparked trade between the 2
Egypt and Nubia
What did they have to
Egypt: stone dishes,
wooden furniture, and
Nubia: ivory, incense
Social and Gender Hierarchies
Varna (Social Hierarchy)
Aryans brought Vedic
religious beliefs, the
foundation of Hinduism
Pariahs [Harijan] Untouchables
Literature as a reflection of society.
World’s first piece
Indus River Valley
2500 BC – 1500 BC
(Mohenjo-Daro & Harappa)
Well planned cities
Built on mud brick platforms
Protected against seasonal floods
Houses built of baked brick
Houses built of sun-dried mud brick
Identify the important
changes during this time continuities.
How were early
Key Concept 2.1
The Development and
Codification of Religious and
(Religious and Cultural Systems Transform)
(The Roman Coliseum or
Religious and political authority often merged so that
political rulers could keep power. Religion and belief
systems could also generate conflicts.
• Monotheism and Judaism
• Further developed with
More about: Assyria, Babylon,
codification of Hebrew
Assyrian, Babylonian, and
Roman empires conquest
Vedic Religions (Hinduism)
• Sanskrit scriptures (epics)
• Caste System
• Brahma (Hindu god of
^ Buddhism spread during the
^ Confucianism was expanded, all
Chinese including rulers recognized
<- Daoism=balance, influenced the
development of Chinese culture (see
next slide for examples)
Daoism and the Development of
• Medical theories and practices
Spread of Christianity, beliefs
based on teachings of Jesus
Core ideas of Greco-Roman
philosophy and science began to
change their emphasis
Buddhism and Christianity encouraged monastic life and
Confucianism emphasized filial piety (respect for parents and
ancestors and bring honor to the parents by respecting others,
Shamanism and Animism
• Shamanism: a range of beliefs and practices regarding
communication with the "spiritual world".
• Animism: the belief that every living thing/object has a soul,
such as plants and various other inanimate natural objects
Regions Where Ancestor Veneration
• The Mediterranean
• East Asia
• The Andean Areas
Ancestor veneration is the belief that those who
die still live in other ways and are able to influence
the lives of those still alive and of later generations
Literature and Drama
• Greek Plays
• (Pictures of Greek theaters today)
• Tragedies or comedies
• Indian Epics: Mahabharata, Ramayana, Upanishads, RigVeda...
Mesoamerica (Chichen Itza)
Aqueduct of Segovia
• Synthesis of Hellenistic/Greek
cultures and Buddhism
• Resulted in development of
unique sculptural developments
Key Concept 2.2
The Development of States
Expanding Boundaries, Policies,
Procedures, and Politics
Political Unity Imposed
• Southwest Asia: Persian Empire
• East Asia: Qin and Han Dynasty
• South Asia: Maurya and Gupta Empires ("Ibn Batutta did not
see the Gupta!")
• Mediterranean Region: Phoenicia and its colonies, Greek
city-states and colonies, and Hellenistic (definition) and
Mesoamerica: Teotihuacan, Mayan city-states
Andean South America: Moche
Regions with Administrative Institutions
• Centralized governments
• Elaborate legal systems and bureaucracies
• South Asia
Imperial Governments Project Military
• Developing Supply Lines
• Building fortifications, roads, and defensive walls
• Drawing new groups of military officers and soldiers from
locals or conquered peoples
Much of the success of the empires rested on their promotion of trade
and economic integration by building and maintaining roads and issuing
• Centers of trade
• Public performances of religious rituals
• Political administration for states and empires
The social structures of empires displayed
hierarchies that included cultivators, laborers,
slaves, artisans, merchants, elites, or caste groups.
Methods to Maintain Food Production
and Rewards for Loyalty
• Rents and tributes
• Peasant communities
• Family and household production
Patriarchy continued to shape gender and family relations
in all imperial societies of this period.
The Roman, Han, Persian, Mauryan, and Gupta empires
created political, cultural, and administrative difficulties that they
could not manage, which eventually led to their decline,
collapse, and transformation into successor empires or states.
What are some possible factors
of decline for an empire?
• Soil erosion
• Silted rivers
Through excessive mobilization of resources, imperial
governments caused environmental damage and generated
social tensions and economic difficulties by concentrating too
much wealth in the hands of elites
External problems resulted from security issues along their
frontiers, including the threat of invasions.
• Between Han China and the
• Between the Gupta and the
• Between the Romans and their
northern and eastern
Key Concept 2.3
Increase of Trade
Multiple Routes, Multiple "Products"
By Land and Sea
• Eurasian Silk Roads
• Trans-Saharan caravan routes
• Indian Ocean sea lanes
• Mediterranean sea lanes
• Facilitated long-distance communication and
• Permitted the use of domesticated pack animals to
transport goods across longer routes.
• Yokes, Saddles, and Stirrups
• Horses, oxen, llamas, camels
Innovations in Maritime Technologies
• Lateen Sail
• Dhow Ships
Alongside the trade in goods, the exchange of people,
technology, religious and cultural beliefs, food crops,
domesticated animals, and disease pathogens developed
across far-flung networks of communication and exchange.
Changes in Irrigation and Farming
• The qanat system
Spread of Disease Pathogens
• Diminished urban populations
• Contributed to the decline of:
o The Roman Empire
o The Chinese Empire
Religions and Cultures Spread and
1. Compare methods used for imperial administration for
Rome, Han, Gupta, Persia
2. Compare/Contrast the fall of 2 of the following: Han,
3. Compare and contrast the rise, development and spread
of Buddhism and early Christianity.
4. Compare the Hindu caste system with other systems of
inequality in the ancient worlds of Rome, Greece, or China.
5. Compare/Contrast the effect of Confucianism versus
Christianity on poltical developments in China and Rome.
6. Discuss the political, economic, social, cultural changes
and/or continuities in one of the following regions:
Mediterranean, East Asia, South Asia