#### Transcript (daughter isotopes) 0

Solar System Travel Brochure A: Tell what the brochure is about. How do you convert kilometers to Astronomical Units? B. Distance from the sun in KM and Astronomical Units If a planet is 300 million kilometers from earth, how many Astronomical Units is the planet from earth? 300 million km 300 million km kilometers E. Length of your objects year: 12 years Source: http://www.universetoday.com/15085/how-long-is-a-year-on-jupiter/ Drop height vs crater depth for two balls of unequal density Drop Height in centimeters 100 50 25 10 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Crater depth in millimeters 8 9 10 Half Life Decay Curve Fraction, percent & decimal of parents and daughters table. Half Life 0 # parents # daughters 1 100% 1.0 0 0% 0 1 ½ 50% 0.5 ½ 50% 0.5 2 ¼ 25% 0.25 ¾ 75% 0.75 3 1/8 12.5% 0.125 7/8 87.5% 0.875 4 1/16 6.25% 0.0625 15/16 93.75% 0.9375 5 1/32 3.0% 0.03 31/32 97% 0.97 63/64 98.4% 0.984 Steps to determine the half life and age of the rock: 1. Add the number of parent atoms and daughter atoms together. 2. Make a ratio of the parent atoms to the total number of atoms. 3. Look on the half life graph and match the parent ratio to the number of half lives. 4. Multiply the number of half lives by the amount of time in 1 half life. A rock sample has 8 parent isotopes and 8 daughter isotopes. How many years old is the sample? (1 half life = 16 years) A rock sample has 4 parent isotopes and 12 daughter isotopes. How many years old is the sample? (1 half life = 20 years) A rock sample has 12 parent isotopes and 0 daughter isotopes. How many years old is the sample? (1 half life = 70 years) A rock sample has 3 parent isotopes and 9 daughter isotopes. How many years old is the sample? (1 half life = 71 years) A rock sample has 10 parent isotopes and 10 daughter isotopes. The half life of the radioactive element is 50 years. How old is the rock in years? 1. Add the number of parent atoms and daughter atoms together. 2. Make a ratio of the parent atoms to the total number of atoms. 3. Look on the half life graph and match the parent ratio to the number of half lives. 4. Multiply the number of half lives by the number of years in 1 half life. A rock sample has 800 parent isotopes and 0 daughter isotopes. The half life of the radioactive element is 5000 years. How old is the rock? 1. Add the number of parent atoms and daughter atoms together. 2. Make a ratio of the parent atoms to the total number of atoms. 3. Look on the half life graph and match the parent ratio to the number of half lives. 4. Multiply the number of half lives by the number of years in 1 half life. A rock sample has 15 parent isotopes and 105 daughter isotopes. The half life of the radioactive element is 100 years. How old is the rock? 1. Add the number of parent atoms and daughter atoms together. 2. Make a ratio of the parent atoms to the total number of atoms. 3. Look on the half life graph and match the parent ratio to the number of half lives. 4. Multiply the number of half lives by the number of years in 1 half life. A rock sample has 15 parent isotopes and 105 daughter isotopes. The half life of the radioactive element is 100 years. How old is the rock? 1. Add the number of parent atoms and daughter atoms together. 2. Make a ratio of the parent atoms to the total number of atoms. 3. Look on the half life graph and match the parent ratio to the number of half lives. 4. Multiply the number of half lives by the number of years in 1 half life. Simplify these fractions then determine the number of half lives each represents. 4 8 10 20 10 160 500 1000 250 1000 50 800 Fill in this table for a rock that has a half life of 1 million years. Half Life Fraction of Parents Time in years How many years old is rock that has 25g of parent isotopes and 75g of daughter isotopes and the half life is 1 million years. Half Life 0 Fraction of Parents Time in years 1 0 Mass in grams of radioactive parents 100 Half Life Black side up circles (parent isotopes) White side up circles in paper cup (daughter isotopes) 0 200 in glass beaker to start 0 in paper cup to start 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Nuclear fusion is how stars make energy. • A Hydrogen atom is combined with another hydrogen atom to make helium. Nuclear Fusion Hydrogen Hydrogen Nuclear Fusion When the sun or another star fuses atoms, it is creating new elements. The creation of new elements is known as nucleosynthesis. Nucleosynthesis Video Formation of elements in stars. nucleosynthesis video clip Two main gases in the sun are hydrogen and helium Spectroscopy – study of light used to determine the components of stars. Sun video Nuclear fusion Fusing atoms Fusion creates new elements Vocabulary due February 23 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Nuclear Fusion Star Planet Light Year Nucleosynthesis Electromagnetic Spectrum 7. Spectroscopy (picture & definition) 8. Optical telescope 9. Radio telescope 10. Stromatolite Speed of Light Light travels 300,000 km in one second Light travels 9.5 trillion km in one year. A light year is the distance light travels in one year, or 9.5 trillion km. Solar System Travel Brochure: How to calculate the amount of time it will take light from the sun to reach your object. Time = Distance divided by Speed D. Find the distance from the sun to your object in kilometers. 1. Divide that distance by 300,000 km per second. Your answer will be in seconds. 500 seconds divided by 60 seconds per minute = 8.3 minutes C. To determine the amount of time it will take a rocket traveling 50,000 km per hour: 1. Determine the distance from the sun to your planet in km. 2. Subtract 150 million km because the Earth is 1 AU from the sun. 3. Divide the distance by 50,000 km to get hours 4. Divide that # by 24 to get days and that # by 365 to get years. Determine how many hours it will take a rocket to travel 400,000 km to the moon if the rocket speed = 50,000 km per hour. Determine how many hours it will take a rocket to get to travel 400,000 km to the moon if the rocket speed = 50,000 km per hour. Determine how many seconds it takes for sunlight reflected off the moon to travel 400,000 km to Earth the speed of light = 300,000 km per second. Determine how many seconds it takes for sunlight reflected off the moon to travel 400,000 km to Earth the speed of light = 300,000 km per second. Intrinsic properties – physical characteristics that do not depend on the amount of material you have. (Color, viscosity, temperature and density) Radioactivity and mass are not an intrinsic property. The bigger the rock, the more radioactivity is produces, the heavier it weighs. The density of gold is the same no matter the size of the gold. Density Animation Using a graduated cylinder to determine density