Earth and Jupiter
Transcript Earth and Jupiter
The solar system
• The sun is the largest celestial object in our solar
system. The sun is a yellow dwarf star. It is a medium
sized star which’s surface is 5500 Kelvin. The sun is
composed of 70% hydrogen, 28% helium and the rest of
the percentage is made up of several other elements
such as different kinds of metals. Different elements can
be formed such as silicon due to nuclear fusion. All of the
planets with their satellites orbit around the sun. The
sun’s mass covers 99.8% of the mass in our solar
system. The sun plays a very important part in our solar
Mercury is the closest planet to the sun and the smallest planet
in our solar system. Mercury is 57,910,000 km away from the
sun. It measures 4, 880 km in diameter. Mercury’s iron core
measures around 1, 800 km- 1, 900km in radius. Mercury is
the 2nd most densest celestial object in our solar system while
Earth is the densest due to it’s gravitational compression.
Mercury’s is similar to Earth’s moon, it has no plate tectonics
and has many craters. Even though Mercury is similar to our
moon, Mercury is much denser. Mercury has the most
extreme temperatures ranging from 90K to 170K. Venus can
be slightly hotter but it’s temperature is more stable. Unlike all
of the Jovian planets, Mercury has no known satellites. Even
though mercury is small, it is still a very interesting celestial
Venus is the second closest planet from the sun and the sixth
largest planet. Venus is 108, 200, 000 km away from the sun.
Venus is the brightest object in the sky except for the sun and
our moon. Venus is very similar to earth in many ways such
as it has 95% of Earth’s diameter and 80% of Earth’s mass,
density and chemical composures are similar and they both
have a few craters and have young surfaces compared to
Earth’s moon and Mercury. Due to these similarities, it was
thought that Venus could also support life as planet Earth
does but unfortunately, through closer study, Venus is
conformed to not be able to support life on Earth. It is thought
that Venus once had large bodies of water like Earth but was
all boiled away. Venus might be very similar to our planet but
it still can’t support life like here on planet Earth.
Our Earth is the 3rd planet away from the sun. There are multiple conditions on
earth that must remain in order to maintain life on earth. Earth is 12, 756.3
km in diameter and is approximately
14, 600, 000 km away from the sun. The Earth’s core is most likely made of
nickel or iron and other elements may be found there. The core is around 7,
500 Kelvin, hotter than the sun’s surface. There are many things on our
planet that allows life to live. Some of the things are oxygen, carbon dioxide,
it’s not to far away from the sun and not to close and the ability to maintain
temperature so we can live. The Earth’s atmosphere is made up of 77%
nitrogen, 21% oxygen and there are other traces of elements such as water,
carbon dioxide and argon. Unlike the other planets, Earth has 7 plates that
float independently on the hot magma below us. Earth is one of the four
inner planets along with mars, venus and mercury. Earth is a very unique
planet in the our solar system which sustains many forms of life.
• Mars is the 4th closet planet to the sun and the 7th largest. It
measures 6, 794 km in diameter. The red planet is 227,940,000 km
away from the sun. The average temperature on Mars is 218 K.
Even though Mars is much smaller than earth, it’s surface area is
very similar. Like Earth’s moon and Mercury, Mars has no active
tectonic plates. There is lot’s of evidence on Mars of erosion
therefore there must have been some kind of fluid on Mars. Mars’s
atmosphere is composed of 93.5% carbon dioxide, 2.7% nitrogen,
1.6% argon, 0.15% of oxygen and 0.03% of water. It is believed that
mars used to be just like Earth but because there were no tectonic
plates, there was no greenhouse effect causing the atmosphere to
change. Even though it is likely that Mars was like Earth in earlier
times, Mars is sill very different from Earth and it won’t be able to
sustain life like here on Earth.
Jupiter is the fifth planet away from the sun and so far the largest planet
in our solar system. Jupiter is
778, 380, 000 km away from the sun and is 142, 984 km in diameter.
Jupiter is made of 90% hydrogen and 10% helium. Jupiter is a gas
giant ( outer planet) along with Saturn, Uranus and Neptune. There
are also faint traces of elements such as water in the atmosphere
but in very small amounts. Jupiter, like all gas giant planets does not
have a solid surface. Jupiter has a region known as the great red
spot which is a higher pressured region of Jupiter, this planet has
other spots but the great red spot is more known due to it’s fairly
larger size. Scientists think that the core of Jupiter is around 35, 500
degrees Celsius. Unlike Earth, Jupiter has 63 known moons while
earth only has 1. Jupiter is a very special planet known in our solar
Saturn is the sixth planet away from the sun and the second largest
planet in our solar system. Saturn is 1, 429, 400, 400 km away
from the sun. It is one of the 4 Jovian planets ( gas giants ),
Similar to Jupiter, Saturn is composed of around 75% hydrogen
and 25%% helium. Saturn is the least dense of the planets.
Using binoculars of a telescope from earth, you can see 2
prominent rings of Saturn and 1 faint ring. Saturn’s rings are very
thin but measure 250, 000 km or more in diameter. The ring’s of
Saturn are mostly made of water and ice but rocky particles can
also be found. The temperature of Saturn’s core is 12, 000
Kelvin. Saturn can easily be identified in a clear night sky, this is
because like Jupiter, Saturn does not twinkle like the stars but
glows similar to how Jupiter glow but does not glow as brightly.
Saturn is a very fascinating planet in our solar system.
• Uranus is the 7th planet away from the sun and the 3rd
largest in diameter. Uranus is 2,870,990,000 km away
from the sun. Uranus was the first planet discovered in
modern times. Uranus is barely visible with the naked
eye at a clear night but if you know where to look with
binoculars. Uranus is mainly made of rock and ice with
only 15% hydrogen unlike 2 of the other outer planets;
Jupiter and Saturn. Like the other gas giant planets,
Uranus has rings. Uranus’s rings have traits of both
Saturn’s and Jupiter’s rings. Uranus may be very far
away from earth but knowledge about Uranus is truly
Neptune is the eighth planet from the sun and the fourth largest in
diameter, it’s diameter is 49,532 km. Neptune is 4,504,000,000 km
away from the sun. Neptune’s composition is made of ice, rock, 15%
hydrogen and a bit of helium unlike Saturn and Jupiter but similar to
Uranus. Neptune’s winds are the fastest in our solar system
reaching up to 200km/hour. Like all of the other Jovian planets,
Neptune has rings but from Earth their appearance are only a faint
arc. Neptune has 13 discovered moons. Neptune was discovered
when scientists realized that Uranus’s orbit did not follow Newton’s
law’s so there must be yet another planet confusing Uranus’s orbit,
that planet was Neptune. Like Jupiter’s great red spot, on Neptune’s
first discovery they found a great dark spot the size of approximately
half of the great red spot. On that spot, the winds blew at around
300 metres/second. Neptune may not be like Earth or Jupiter but it’s
still a great discovery about our solar system.
Moons ( In general)
• A moon is a natural satellite orbiting around a celestial
object such as the planets. Different celestial objects
have a different amount of natural satellites. Earth only
has 1 moon while Jupiter has 63 known moons.
• Small pieces of space debris that crash down onto a
planet are called meteoroids.
• When a meteoroid enters a different atmosphere it starts
to burn up, most meteoroids burn up in the atmosphere
before landing, when it’s burning in the atmosphere it is
called a meteor.
• If a meteor survives the atmosphere and crashes onto
the surface it is then called a meteorite.
Stars (In general)
Stars are glowing balls of hot has which are
formed in a nebula. Stars last for billions of years
but eventually after around a billion years it ends
in a explosion. When they explode, the helium,
oxygen, neon or any other gases after a long
process mix in with other gases and dust and
forms new stars. There many stars in our
universe. Stars are very interesting parts of our
Comparison between Earth and
•Faint traces of elements such as
water in both atmospheres.
•Earth can sustain life, Jupiter probably can’t.
•Jupiter has 63 moons while earth only has one.
•Jupiter is a gas giant, earth is a inner planet.
•Jupiter’s mass is 318 times more than earth
•Jupiter’s atmosphere is made of hydrogen and
helium, earth’s is made up of oxygen, nitrogen
and other elements.
•Earth has solid surfaces but Jupiter doesn't.
•Earth is closer to the sun.
•Temperatures of the cores are different.
•Earth has confirmed temperature but Jupiter’s
temperature’s are still unknown.
•Substance that forms earth or Jupiter are
Why is Earth the best planet to
Earth is the best planet that supports life. One of the main
reasons why Earth is the best planet to live on is
because there is oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide. This
allows life to breathe on our planet. The Earth isn’t as
close to the sun as Venus or Mercury or to far like
Uranus and Neptune. Because the Earth is at a good
distance from the sun, the Earth has maintained
appropriate temperature for life to live on the planet. The
atmosphere’s composure is very important for life. Earth
is a very important planet because it allows life to exist in
our solar system.