Memory and the Seven Dwarfs
Transcript Memory and the Seven Dwarfs
Memory and the Seven
Describe the three steps needed to
remember The Dwarfs…
• Step 1: find the information in your
brain… also known as ENCODING
• Step 2: we must have retained the
information for it to be found… also known
• Step 3: if found we must pull it out and get
it back… also known as RETRIEVAL
Tip of the Tongue Phenomenon
• Did you have a feeling you knew
the name of one of them but were
unable to retrieve it?
• If so you experienced TOT which
occurs when the retrieval process
Organization of memory
• We often organize our memories by
sound, letter, and meaning.
• For the names you did remember, is there
any order to how you remembered?
– Syllables are often paired.
– Letters often follow one another. D’s
together, S’s together.
– Names that have like meaning (in this list…
Happy, Friendly, Sadness, Mean, Nice… we
would remember Sadness and Mean together
and Happy, Friendly, and Nice together.
Recall versus recognition.
• What do you think the difference is?
• Recall is what I asked you to do on the
handout. It is a harder task because it
involves two steps: generation of possible
“memory matches” and then identification
of the correct ones.
• In recognition the first step is done for
• For example…
Choose the correct seven names
from the list below.
• Grouchy, Gabby, Fearful, Sleepy, Smiley,
Jumpy, Hopeful, Shy , Droopy, Dopey,
Sniffy, Wishful, Puffy, Dumpy, Sneezy,
Lazy, Poppy, Grumpy, Bashful, Cheerful,
Shorty, Nifty, Happy, Doc, Wheezy, and
Why are essay tests more
difficult than multiple choice?
• Essay is straight recall… either you know
it or you don’t. Not only do you have to
retrieve it, you have to then apply it.
• Multiple Choice is recognition… the right
answer is in front of you, you just have to
Did that make it easier? Why?
• And the final answer is:
One last task… can you say the
entire Greek alphabet?
• Most likely, your answer is no, but can you name
• Chances are you can remember the first few and
the very last one.
• This is another tendency of memory… we tend
to remember the beginnings and ends, but not
what’s in the middle. The U.S. Presidents are
another good example.
• This is called “The Serial Position Effect”