#### Transcript Space and Space Exploration

```Standard of Learning 6.8
Standard of Learning 6.8
6.8 The student will investigate and understand the organization of the
solar system and the interactions among the various bodies that
comprise it. Key concepts include
a) the sun, moon, Earth, other planets and their moons, dwarf planets,
meteors, asteroids, and comets;
b) relative size of and distance between planets;
c) the role of gravity;
d) revolution and rotation;
e) the mechanics of day and night and the phases of the moon;
f) the unique properties of Earth as a planet;
g) the relationship of Earth’s tilt and the seasons;
h) the cause of tides; and
i) the history and technology of space exploration.
Essential Knowledge
 The solar system consists of the sun, moon, Earth, other planets and
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their moons, meteors, asteroids, and comets. Each body has its own
characteristics and features.
The distance between planets and sizes of the planets vary greatly. The
outer, “gas” planets are very large, and the four inner planets are
comparatively small and rocky.
Gravity is a force that keeps the planets in motion around the sun.
Gravity acts everywhere in the universe.
Planets revolve around the sun, and moons revolve around planets. A
planet rotates upon an axis.
A dwarf planet revolves around the sun, and can maintain a nearly
round shape as planets do, but it cannot move other objects away from
its orbital neighborhood
Interactive Textbook:
Chapter 14 Review
 Movement of objects in the Sky:
Stars are stationary and appear to move only due to
Earth’s movement
Planets move in orbital paths around the Sun
Moons move in orbital paths around planets
Earth’s moon revolves around Earth approximately every
27 Days.
Earth revolves around the sun every 365.25 days of one
year.
Chapter 14 Review Cont.
 Earth rotates on its axis every 24 hours (day)
 Earth’s Axis is tilted at an angle of 23.5°
 This tilt is the reason we have seasons.
 Earth rotates east to west which causes objects in the
sky to appear to move west to east.
 Gravity and inertia keep the earth in orbit around the
Sun and the moon in orbit around the Earth.
 Gravity depends upon the mass of the objects and the
distance between them.
Earth Special Characteristics
 What causes our day and night, our year?
 What makes Earth so different from the other planets?
 How does Earth have seasons?
o Earth’s rotation on it axis gives us day and night.
Earth’s revolution around the sun gives us our year.
o Earth is different because it has liquid water.
o Earth is tilted on its axis and it is always tilted toward
the north star (polaris) in the little dipper
constellation.
Earth’ Axis
 http://www.classzone.com/books/earth_science/terc/
content/visualizations/es0404/es0404page01.cfm?cha
pter_no=visualization
Seasons on Earth
 The Earth has seasons because the axis is tilted at
23.5⁰. When the Northern Hemisphere is tilted toward
the Sun it has summer and the Southern hemisphere
has winter.
 http://www.classzone.com/books/earth_science/terc/
Seasons: Solstices and Equinoxes
Summer
Solstice: Late June
Northern Hemispheres
Fall
Equinox: Late September
Equal/ north and south
Winter
Solstice: Late December
Southern Hemisphere
Spring
Equinox: Late March
Equal/ North and South
Earth’s Moon
How did it form?
 It is believed that the moon formed when a large asteroid hit
Earth and broke off a large piece that became caught in
Earth’s gravitational field and became our moon.
How does it affect Tides?
Phases of the moon and how they
occur?
Earth’s Moon
 Earth’s Moon revolves around the earth every 27.3
days. It rotates on it’s own axis at about the same rate.
For this reason, the same side of the moon faces the
earth all of the time. The phases of the moon are
determined by the amount of the sunlit side that can
be seen from earth.
 The moon’s gravity affects the water on earth by
causing tides.
Moon Tides
 http://home.hiwaay.net/~krcool/Astro/moon/moonti
des/
Why did we go to the moon?
President John F. Kennedy
http://er.jsc.nasa.gov/seh/ricetalk.htm
 “We choose to go to the moon. We choose to go
to the moon in this decade and do the other
things, not because they are easy, but because
they are hard, because that goal will serve to
organize and measure the best of our energies
and skills, because that challenge is one that we
are willing to accept, one we are unwilling to
postpone, and one which we intend to win, and
the others, too.”

President John F. Kennedy
The Goal is set… We Did it!!
THE SCIENTISTS
 THE GREEKS: the believed the earth was the center of
the solar system. Geocentric system.
 PTOLEMY: AD 140; Believed that the moon, Mercury,
Venus, Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn all revolved around
the earth. He believed that the planets moved in little
circles and those traveled in larger circles.
 COPERNICUS: he changed the earlier beliefs by
claiming the sun was the center.
The Scientists
 GALILEO: 1500-1600: He still believed like the early
Greeks. He observed the phases of Venus and changed
his belief..
 Tacho Brahe was a mathematician. Johannes Kepler
used his calculations to prove the Sun Centric system
and he said the planets orbit in ellipses.
 Sir Isaac Newton: used his theories of gravity and
inertia to prove how planets remain in orbit.
The beginning:
 The Chinese made the first rockets.
 Russian: Tsiolkovsky and American: Robert Goddard
 After world War II: German Wernher von Braun came to
America and helped develop rockets for the American
space program.
 The Russian Satelite Sputnik 1 was the first artificial
satellite.
 The US then launched their own satelite Explorer 1 in
1958
 1961: Russian: Yuri Gregarin was the first human in
space
 1962: American John Glen orbited Earth in Friendship 7
The beginning of NASA had these main
missions and the Goals
 Mercury Missions: Orbital Flight
 Gemini Missions: Lunar Landing
 Apollo Mission: Man and exploration of the
moon
 Space Shuttles: Build a space station in orbit
around earth, satellite deployment , repair
and recovery.
Other Space objects:
 Space Stations: a Large artificial satellite where people can
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live and work for long periods.
Mir: First Russian space station
Skylab: First American Space station
International Space station: Currently in use by many
countries.
Space probes: Spacecraft that carries instruments but no
human crew.
 Rovers (land on the surface and move around)
 Landers (just land and take pictures and samples)
 Orbiters (orbit and take pictures)
Our Solar System
 Sun the center of the solar system: The sun is a star.
 Mercury- Planet closest to the sun
 Venus- second planet from the sun
 Earth-third Planet from the sun
 Mars –fourth
These four planets are known as the terrestrial planets.
Other Space objects
 Asteroids: Distance from the sun and Geological
makeup. Describe the Asteroid Belt and Kuiper Belt.
 Comets: Description of the Oort Cloud, How comets
form, travel and change as they go around the sun.
 Meteors: Describe the difference between meteors
and meteoroids and meteorites. Where do they come
from?
 The Sun. Age, Distance to earth, Composition, Surface
temperature.
The Gas giants
 Jupiter: follows Mars and is a gas planet
 Saturn: is after Jupiter and is also a gas planet, it has
the most visible rings.
 Uranus: is also a gas planet
 Neptune is the last planet in the solar system and is
also a gas planet.
 Pluto was designated a dwarf planet last year. It is
mostly rock and ice.
 Remember: my very eager mother just served us nine pizza’s: Mercury, Venus,
Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, Pluto.
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