Transcript Chapter 10

10 Providing for the Infants
Developmental Needs
Chapter 10
Physical Needs
Physical needs are the most basic
needs of humans
Needs for food and sleep
Babies who are hungry, tired or sick
suffer in physical, mental, social
and emotional ways
Most basic physical need
Baby’s body grows quickly in first
3 times faster than in 2nd or 3rd
Nutrients are the substances in food that
give babies energy and help them grow.
Meeting a baby’s food needs quickly
alleviates hunger
Sensation of hunger may be physically
painful for a very young baby
Cries from hunger differs from other
cries, which makes it easy for
parents to recognize
Promptly responding teaches the
infant his or her needs will be met
Erickson calls this learning a sense
of basic trust
Feeding time is comforting for
Deepen their relationship with the
Be loving, warm and concerned
promotes baby’s social and
emotional development
Feeding During The First Year
Needs depend on baby’s size and
how fast he or she is growing
Depends on health, heredity, and
level of activity
Pediatrician and dietitian can
help parents learn what and
how much to feed
First Foods
Begin by “eating” an all liquid diet
(breast milk or formula)
Between 6 months and 1 year
begins to eat fruits, vegetables,
meats and breads which are call
For infant feeding these should be
semi-liquid, mush food
Infant Feeding
Commercial foods
Prepared baby
Table foods
Foods must be
mashed, pureed,
or strained
Doctors do not suggest solids for
the first 6 months for the following
Babies are not born with the ability to
swallow solids
Babies do not need solids for nutritional
reasons and can’t digest complex
Starting solids too early may cause an
allergy or intolerance problems
Some solids have too much sodium.
May increase the baby’s chance of
high blood pressure as an adult
Solids may be too high in calories.
Make baby gain weight too quickly
Holding a baby close while formulaor breast-feeding gives the baby a
warm feeling of physical closeness
Introducing New Foods
Introduce one food at a time
Feed in small amounts
Don’t add another new food for at
least 4 to 5 days—helps to see if
there is intolerance
Intolerance –negative physical
reaction that eating a certain food
can cause
Food intolerance shows in 1 to 4
Wait until after 1st birthday to
reintroduce and if a negative
reaction may require testing
Foods to Avoid
Small or hard foods that might lead
to choking
Foods like cake, crackers, and soft
drinks which have too much sugar,
sodium, or artificial flavors
Unpasteurized yogurt and foods that
contain yeast are hard for babies to
Stimulants (caffeine) –speed up the
functions of organs, such as the heart
and nervous system
Depressants (alcohol) – slow the
functions of the organs and nervous
Feeding Schedule
Fits the baby’s needs
Some like smaller, more frequent
Others like more food and less often
Baby’s growth slows at the end of
the 1st year and appetite will
Homemade VS Store Bought Baby
See the charts 10-6 and 10-7 which
show advantages
When buying commercially check
for freshness
Check the sell-by-date=last date
the store should sell the product
Make sure containers are sealed properly
and not opened
See if the safety button is not risen
Spoon out the amount needed and not
from the jar, you can introduce bacteria
from the baby’s saliva
If it needs to be heated, test it first
Most babies like room temperature best
Weaning is the process of taking the
baby off the bottle or breast
Should be gradual
Must learn new way of drinking
Age at weaning depend on whether
baby is breast or bottle fed (consult
Weaning from the Breast
American Academy of Pediatrics
recommends mothers breast feed for at
least 12 months
May nurse longer by needs to be weaned
by 18 to 24 months
Weaned before 1 year, need an ironfortified formula
If weaned after 1 year can offer whole
cow’s milk
Children between 1 and 2 should
drink whole milk rather than
reduced fat milk
Formulas designed for toddlers are
not better for children than cow’s
milk after 1 year
May wean to a bottle or a cup depending
on age
If skilled enough they can use the cup
Abrupt weaning is stressful for the baby
and mom may have blocked milk ducts
and suffer from depression (slow process)
Consult your physician on the way to
wean your child
Early evening best time to start, change
up ½ of the feeding and end with breast
Early morning last feeding to stop
Breast-fed accept a cup sooner than
bottle-fed babies
Weaning to Cup
Formula-fed babies wean as early
as the child shows interest
As early as 9 months but
recommended at 12 months
Often completed by 18 months
Teaching Babies to Drink from Cup
Give the baby a special baby cup
With 2 handles and weighted in the bottom
Praise the baby when he or she tried to
handle the cup
Give the baby a few sips of liquid at about
6 months
Let the baby drink small amounts of milk
at one feeding
Gradually replace other bottle feeding sin
the same way
Spoon Feeding
Eating from a spoon is
Most pediatricians recommend the
baby be 6 months old
Developmentally ready to learn to
eat with a spoon
Closer to 6 months, the better he or
she will do with this developmental
task. True for the following reasons:
Until babies are 16 to 18 weeks old,
they have an extrusion reflex (tongue
trusts forward when it is touched by an
object) won’t open their mouths until
they are 5 months old
Babies do not need more nutrition
that breast milk or formula until
they reach 13 to 15 pounds
Before 6 months of age, babies do
not have the needed enzymes
(special proteins that aid in
digestion) or saliva for digesting
solid foods
American Academy of Pediatrics
Recommends the first solid food a
commercial iron-enriched rice cereal
First feedings, cereal should “pour”
from the spoon
Using breast milk or formula makes it
more nutritious
Solids are always fed from a spoon
“infant feeder” is a bottle with a
large hole in it and defeats the
purpose of baby learning how to
use his or her tongue and throat to
chew, swallow, and breath
Non spoon methods present a risk
of choking
Plastic coated baby spoon protects
infants sensitive gums
Don’t wait too long to feed
Feed solids early in the day or early
afternoon, more apt to have colic if
Babies may push food and spoon
out of their mouths
This is a reflexive response to
strange objects and doesn’t mean
baby doesn’t want it
Continue offering until babies turns
their head or close their mouths
Finger foods are foods a baby can
self-feed using fingers
Near the end of the 1st year babies
develop skill of self-feeding at the
same time they develop the pincer
Eating finger foods is fun
Can be hazardous
May choke or gag on new textures
Keep baby in view
Offer only “safer” food
Self-feeding with a spoon begins in
the second year
They may want to help so give
them a spoon to hold while feeding
Some parents let them use the
spoon for the last few bites
Grow quickly and outgrow clothes
Clothing should be easy to move in
Style & Color
Any style has advantages and
Two-piece outfits easier to dress
and worn longer because of no
crotch area to get tight
One-piece look neater, warmer and
easy to crawl in
Not needed until a baby begins to
walk outdoors
Outdoors need cushion and
protection for feet
Indoors, babies should walk without
shoes to prevent flat-footed walking
Most worn in the 1st year are for
decoration (soft soles, cloth soles)
Good Consumer Sense
Shop for quality and compare prices
Follow these tips:
Look for built-in growth features
Double row of snaps, buttons, stretch
waists and stretch leg openings
Choose more stretch knit garments
than woven garments
Look for flame-retardant finishes on
Look for ease-of-care labels
Caring for Baby Clothes
Follow these practices:
Before cleaning clothes, read labels
and tags
Infants’ and children’s clothes often
need to go through more rinses
than other clothing
When washing baby sleepwear, do
not add fabric softener to the load
Can reduce flame-retardant qualities of
Many parents store baby clothes for
future children or as keepsakes
Before storing, clean clothes, soiled
spots, etc
Diapering Baby
Require frequent diaper changes
Changes sizes as child grows
Older babies wiggle more and may
protest when diapered
Keep diaper-changing areas very
clean (wash your hands)
Tub Bathing
Can begin as soon as the baby’s navel has
Small tub filled with about 3 inches of
Comfortably warm temperature
Test by dipping elbow or wrist
Good time for play, talk, sing, cuddle, and
Developing good motor skills and fun
Establishing Routines
Helps them feel secure and teaches them
what to expect
Having one’s physical needs met
promptly, help infants develop basic trust
Schedule is important but adjust as it
needs to be
Routines should fit babys’ and adults’
Change as baby matures
Rest & Sleep
Important for baby’s health
Some sleep through night at 12
weeks others are later
Awakening babies after 4 hours of
daytime sleep should help baby
sleep longer at night
Some will awaken and cry during
night (5 – 8 months) may not be
hunger but loneliness
Parents should check, comfort for a
few minutes and then put them
back down
Sudden Infant Death Syndrome
SIDS kills many infants during their
first year of life
Strikes seemingly healthy babies
Simply stop breathing
3rd leading cause of death in infants
of 1 week to 12 months
Most common to strike between 1
and 4th month
Cause of SIDS unknown
Only diagnosed after all other
possible causes of death are ruled
Some theories think a virus that
attacks the brain stem before or
shortly after birth
Some studies show babies sleeping
on stomachs as a cause
May not be able to move heads
May be rebreathing exhaled air
Precautions for parents
Avoid as many of the risk factors
before and after the birth
Place baby on a firm mattress
Do not use fluffy blankets,
comforters, throws, stuffed toys, or
pillows in bed
Make sure baby does not get too
warm while sleeping
Have regular well-baby check ups
Use a breathing monitor and alarm
if recommended by your doctor
Place baby on his or her back
Back sleeping may have helped the
40% of SIDS
Places for Sleep and Play
Babies should sleep away from
major activities
Use a screen to section off part of
their bedroom
Their own room or playroom if
Sleeping area should be large
enough for full size crib
A rocker is convenient in sleeping
Play Area
Babies are messy and spaces
should be washable
All spaces must be safe
Decorate children’s room with their
tastes in mind
Babies grow quickly, spaces should
be planned for easy and economical
changes as baby’s needs change
Intellectual Needs
Enriched environment ==an
environment that offers a person
many chances to learn
Caregivers who expected them to
learn at an early age developed
more quickly
Adults can provide learning
experiences for babies soon after
Rate of learning cannot be
Too many toys and activities can
confuse or bore the child
Skillful caregiver knows how to use
activities to meet babies’ intellectual
needs. Adults can use the following
Watch for signs of the baby’s interest in
certain experiences, shows interest,
show the baby how to use a toy
Let the baby begin most activities
then expand on them
Repeat games many times. Help
baby retain skills the games build
Let babies try things on their own
Activities to Stimulate the Senses
Sensory stimulation involves using
the senses to learn about the
Piaget says babies use their senses
as a major way of learning
All 5 sense my be stimulated to
develop full learning
Problem Solving Activities
Peek a boo
Teaches that a person is there even
though he or she can’t be seen
Object permanence
Motor Activities
Coordination is the working
together of muscles in movements
such as walking
Use of gross motor skills such as
rolling over, sitting, crawling, etc
Use of small motor skills such as
playing with blocks
Language Activities
Babies learn language by hearing
people talk
Not important exact words but ust
hearing words
“I’m putting on your green shirt.”
“Isn’t this a pretty shirt?”
Changing pitch and singing also
adds interest
Reading to infants daily exposes
them to new words and ideas
Social-Emotional Needs
Centers on baby and adult
Babies react to adults’ feeling and
Adults’ feelings are conveyed mainly
through the way they hold, touch,
and look at the baby
Adults who are tense and the baby’s
needs aren’t met, the baby
becomes fussy and difficult
When adults are relaxed and the
baby’s need are me, the baby is
often more quiet and cooperative
Babies feel love through physical
contact with the adult
Quality of the relationship is
influenced more by the total
number of messages and the
strength of these messages
Helping Babies Develop SelfAwareness
Self-awareness or an understanding
of himself or herself as a unique
They form a mental picture of
Babies gaze at their hands for
hours, making slight movements
Infants also learn how their
movements can affect other objects
Might move a hand and bat a toy
Looking in mirrors also increases
Toward the end of the first year,
babies become possessive about
some objects
Learn that some objects belong to
them and increase self-awareness
Handling Special Problems
Decide if the problem is temporary
If the problem continues, talk to an
Get help when needed
Give in to a baby’s demands
sometimes, if the results are not
Remain calm. This helps the baby
and the adult
Recognizing Developmental Delays
Simple means a child’s development
falls far behind typical children of
his or her age in one or more areas
Large gap indicates a more serious
Seeking early help can keep some
problems from worsening