Psychology 3533 Understanding Human Sexuality
Transcript Psychology 3533 Understanding Human Sexuality
PSYCHOLOGY 2012: ADULT DEVELOPMENT & AGING
KEY FEATURES OF DEVELOPMENT:
PLASTIC (improvement, adaptation,
ROLE OF TIME AND PLACE (history,
MULTIPLE CAUSES (contributions of
many disciplines: biology, sociology,
Cannot study development in a vacuum.
Theories and Models:
Theories concerned with description and
explanation of age-related changes, e.g. drop
in IQ scores in old age. Different areas
(personality, moral development, etc.) rely on
Example of theory: psychoanalytic
Models cut across content areas and theories.
They describe how a specific developmental
process occurs and is organized (e.g. the
decrement model says that aging means
Example of model: history-normative
Most Common Models:
decrement (reversible or irreversible)
stability (no change with age)
age-graded (biological or social) and
history-graded (environmental or biological)
unique individual events
Important: cohort effects: events that
affect a cohort.
Cohort: people born around the same
Generation: 25 year cohort.
Smaller cohorts: 5 or 10 years.
Wars, famines, pandemics, affluence,
Time of measurement or period effects:
affects all ages, e.g. resettlement in NL,
Great Depression, commercial flying, etc.
Common Issues Studied:
continuity vs. discontinuity of development
qualitative vs. quantitative change
plasticity vs. rigidity
multidirectional vs. unidirectional change
Certain unique problems in developmental
1. Cannot do experiments: age as a
variable cannot be manipulated.
2. Sampling: how random? Importance of
SES and health status.
Data collection: sampling difficulties.
Biased samples limit external validity:
can’t generalize to the whole population.
Research population: all the individuals
in the group you want to study. If very
large, you draw a:
Sample: randomly selected individuals from
Stratified random sample: including specific
Manipulation of an independent variable (IV) causes
changes in the dependent variable (DV).
Main features of experiments:
random assignment to conditions
Common types of experiments:
quasi-experiment or naturalistic (no control of IV)
2. CORRELATIONAL STUDIES:
Correlation: association or relationship between
two or more variables.
Allow predictions but no cause-effect can be
Lack of random assignment: no internal validity
Two designs based on correlations:
several groups of different ages.
Advantages: fast, relatively
Disadvantages: cohort effects: are
the differences among groups due
to age or to cohort?
Longitudinal: follows one group over
Advantages: changes more clearly due
Disadvantages: long term, attrition,
test-retest effects, expensive, possible
age/time of measurement confound,
i.e., period effects.
Some disadvantages overcome
when using different combinations
of both longitudinal and crosssectional. Also, by using Time-lag
design: hold age constant, vary
time of measurement.
Longitudinal + Time Lag
Cross-Sectional + Time Lag
Cross-Sectional + Longitudinal
age vs. cohort ignores historical time effects
age effects vs. historical or time of
ignores cohort effects
cohort vs. time of measurement
ignores age effects
Schaie’s Most Efficient Design Also
Called Combination or Trifactorial
Possible confound for all repeated
regression to the mean
long, cumbersome, expensive
letters, diaries, questionnaires and
Biases in questions:
4. Systematic Observations:
5. Case Studies (clinical method)
normative events most important (school,
non-normative events accumulate leading to
vast individual differences: the usual
development theories don’t necessarily
In adulthood chronological age is a much
poorer guide to development studies.
analogy to machine, computer. Individual is passive.
External forces dominate development (e.g. S-R
individuals are active, interact with the environment.
Developmental change has a goal (e.g. Piaget)
people interact with a constantly changing
environment and they in turn change. Heavy
emphasis on history-normative events: the
development of someone born in 1890 is different
from that of someone born in 1990.
Study age-related changes in roles within
how a 25-year old and a 70-year old
interact, which also changes at different
points in history.
how institutions respond to changing social
conditions, e.g. divorce rate.
Developmental patterns across cultures.
Example: status of elderly in Japan and
its effects on old people’s development.
Changing role of families
The word adulthood didn’t exist before
Topical Area to Which
Behavioral, social learning
Bandura (1969, 1977)
Erikson (1964, 1979)
Kohlberg (1973, 1981)
Cattell (1971), Horn (1982)
Guildford, Zimmerman, and
Riegel (1975, 1976)
Personality, Life crises
BALTES’ THEORETICAL PERSPECTIVE:
Life-span approach: development takes
a lifetime and each stage is equally
Dynamic interaction between growth,
maintenance and loss.
Early phase (childhood and
adolescence) and later phase
(adulthood) have different progress: rapid
and slower changes.
Multidisciplinary approach needed.