Case Study 3: Hutchinson-Gilford`s Progeria Syndrome

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Transcript Case Study 3: Hutchinson-Gilford`s Progeria Syndrome

Case Study 3: Werner’s Syndrome a progeric disease
Cell Division
Cell Cycle
What mechanisms control the proliferation of cells?
What governs the life span of an organism?
Cell death as a necessary and important part of development:
Apoptosis (programmed cell death)
Context: George Martin, 1978
‘Genetic Syndromes in Man with Potential Relevance
to the Pathology of Aging’
< 7000 genes: involved in degenerative processes associated with aging
Between 70 and 7 genes: control processes having large impact
on senescence
What is cell senescence?
Divide certain # of times then enter G0 and eventually die
Aging a multigene process
10 genetic diseases that mimic aging process—but only in part
Chromosomal aneuploides Down’s syndrome
Dementia, cataracts, diabetes, hair graying, cancer
Known single mutant geneWerner’s syndrome
Skin ‘thinning’, Hair graying and loss, atherosclerosis,
Cataracts, cancer diabetes, osteoporosis
Unknown but thought to be single gene
Hutchinson-Gilford’s Progeria
Skin ‘thinning’ hair loss, atherosclerosis, osteoporosis,
In 20’s
Werner’s Syndrome
Werner’s history
Named for C. W. Otto Werner (1879-1936)
Rural doctor, medical officer in German Navy WWI
Rare autosomal recessive disease
Approx 1 in 200 people carriers for defective gene
Approx 3 in 1,000,000 people have the disease
(Slightly higher percentage in Japan)
Onset of symptoms early to mid 20’s,
Major cause of death—heart attack in mid 40s
Cells of Progeria and WS
Cell Culture
What do cells need to proliferate?
When compare fibroblasts of child with Progeria and their parent
Child’s cells are ‘older’ in terms of replication
‘normal cells’ divide ~12 to 24 hours
Divide approx 50times in culture
Progeric Fibroblasts:
Rarely ever double
Few cell generations before death
Note: Often ‘Progeric’ used to describe any premature aging
as well as the disease Hutchinson Gilford Progeria
Why do we age?/How how do we age?
Short answer: Don’t know
The 3 R’s: Mutation effecting DNA reading, replicating or repair
Hypotheses for Aging:
Free Radical Theory: Aging due to accumulation of
damage from free radicals
Telomere Theory: Chromosome ends shorten with divisions
Cause of Werner’s syndrome
Helicase defect: Mutation Chromosome 8 in WRN gene
all 35 known mutations result in truncated protein
all ‘remove’ nuclear targeting sequence
different mut’s associated with different cancers
Case Study Focuses
Cell death: damage and apoptosis
Telomeres and replication
Cell Cycle and its regulation