Protein Synthesis - Plano Science Tutor

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Transcript Protein Synthesis - Plano Science Tutor

Protein Synthesis
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Nucleus
• Part of the cell containing
DNA and RNA and
responsible for growth
and reproduction.
• In eukaryotic cells, the
DNA never leaves the
nucleus.
• To make proteins, the
information from DNA is
copied, and that copy
leaves to assemble the
protein.
Ribosome
• Part of the cell on which
proteins are assembled;
made of RNA and
protein.
• The ribosome is where
the mRNA and tRNA
meet.
• The mRNA brings the
information for the right
sequence of amino acids.
• The tRNA brings the
amino acids.
DNA
• Nucleic acid that
contains the sugar
deoxyribose.
• DNA has the bases A,
T, C, and G.
• DNA is double
stranded and contains
over 20,000 genes.
• Each gene is
responsible for making
one protein.
Transcription
• Process where an
mRNA copy of one side
of a DNA gene is made
in the nucleus.
• To make one protein,
one copy of one gene
is made in the form of
mRNA.
• DNA is copied into
mRNA to transport the
message.
Messenger RNA
• Type of RNA that copies the
coded message from DNA in
the nucleus and carries the
message to the ribosome.
• This copy holds the original
base sequence from DNA
(except T’s are switched to
U’s) that will make the
correct protein.
• Each 3-base sequence,
called a Codon, will attract a
specific amino acid.
Translation
• Process where proteins
are assembled on the
ribosome.
• The cell is literally
“translating” from the
language of bases to the
language of amino acids.
• mRNA brings the bases,
tRNA brings the amino
acids, and Ribosomal
RNA (rRNA) makes sure
the two communicate
properly.
Transfer RNA
• Type of RNA molecule that
transfers amino acids to
ribosomes during protein
synthesis.
• On one side is a three base
sequence (an Anticodon)
that’s the exact opposite of
the mRNA Codon it’s
supposed to match with.
• On the other side is a very
specific amino acid.
• When the Anticodon
matches with the mRNA
Codon, the amino acid is
now placed in that
position, as well!
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