Chapter 17 European Renaissance and Reformation

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Transcript Chapter 17 European Renaissance and Reformation

Chapter 17
European Renaissance and Reformation
What can you learn from art?
Italy: Birthplace of the Renaissance
Italy: Birthplace of the Renaissance
 Middle Ages had war and suffering from the plague
 Church taught Christians to endure suffering while awaiting
reward in heaven
 People began to question
Italy: Birthplace of the Renaissance
 Italy’s Advantages
 Renaissance – explosion of creativity in art, writing and thought that
lasted from 1300 to 1600
Wanted a return to classical Greek and Roman era
New styles of art, literature and values
Spread from Italy throughout Europe
3 reasons for Renaissance in Italy
 1. Thriving cities – trade from crusades and higher wages from fewer
 2. Wealthy merchant class – merchants dominated politics through merit,
not birth, individual achievement became important
 Medici family (banking)
 3. Greek and Roman heritage
Italy: Birthplace of the Renaissance
 Humanism – focused on human potential and achievements
and didn’t link thoughts to church teachings
 History, literature and philosophy studied
 Can enjoy life without offending God (goods, food, clothing and
 Secular – worldly rather than spiritual and concerned with the
here and now
 Some church leaders live in mansions and wore lavish clothes
 Patrons – financially support artists
Italy: Birthplace of the Renaissance
 Renaissance man – excelled in many fields and studied many
subjects (charming, witty, dance, sing, play music, well read,
and write poetry)
 Renaissance woman – well educated but not to seek fame,
inspire, but not create art, not involved in politics
Italy: Birthplace of the Renaissance
 Art
 Perspective – three dimensions on a flat surface
 Realistic paintings and sculptures
 Leonardo Da Vinci – painter, sculptor, inventor and scientist
 Mona Lisa and The Last Supper
 Writers
 Vernacular – native language instead of Latin
 Wrote about self-expression or individuality
Italy: Birthplace of the Renaissance
Italy: Birthplace of the Renaissance
Italy: Birthplace of the Renaissance
 Writers
 Vernacular – native language instead of Latin
 Wrote about self-expression or individuality
The Northern Renaissance
 By 1450 population was growing again in Europe
 Merchant class grew and ideas spread to Northern Italy and
 War in Italy forced writers and artists to move north into
 Artists focused on realism in the north
 Flanders has many artists who paint with oil and make
clothing and jewelry
The Northern Renaissance
 Writers were humanists and critical of the church not
inspiring people.
 They promoted education for all even though girls were
 Erasmus wrote of Christianity of the heart not of ceremonies
and rules.
 Thomas More, Utopia, an ideal place with no war, corruption
or greed
The Northern Renaissance
 Elizabethan Age
 Queen Elizabeth I (1558-1603)
 Spoke 5 languages
 Wrote poetry and music while promoting the arts
 William Shakespeare
 Greatest playwright of all time
 Great use of language and emotion
 Hamlet, Macbeth, Romeo and Juliet, Othello, King Lear and A Midsummer Night’s
The Northern Renaissance
 Printing press by Johann Gutenberg spreads ideas (1444) and
Bible (1455)
 More info. available cheap
 Increased desire for learning and literacy
 Published accounts of new discoveries and maps
 Published legal proceedings and laws
 Renaissance idea of dignity of the individual gave rise to
democratic ideals as people began to question society
Luther Leads the Reformation
 By 10th century Catholic church dominates life in N and W
People began criticizing church practices
Church authority was challenged
Printing press helped spread ideas negative to the church
Chart on page 488
Criticisms included: corruption, lavish spending, infidelity,
poorly educated priests, marrying, drinking and gambling
Luther Leads the Reformation
 Martin Luther was a monk and a teacher who wanted to be a
good Christian
95 Theses – formal statements attacking church practices
Johann Tetzel raised money through indulgences (pay for a
pardon of sins) which gave the impression that you could buy
your way into heaven.
Posted on church door in Wittenberg, Luther’s ideas were
spread by the printing press
Reformation – a movement for religious reform in
opposition to the Catholic church’s teachings
Luther Leads the Reformation
 Luther’s Teachings
 Win salvation by faith in God’s forgiveness
 Teaching based on the Bible not the pope or church traditions
 All people with faith were equal
 Response to Luther
Luther was excommunicated and burned the pope’s decree
Luther declared an outlaw and heretic by the king
Established a separate group called the Lutherans
Peasants revolt based on Luther’s works and are crushed (100,000
 Protestant comes from protesting princes
 Peace of Augsburg allows princes to decide religion of territory after
a war
Luther Leads the Reformation
 England becomes Protestant
 Henry VIII wants a male heir and wanted to divorce 42 year old
Catherine for a younger bride
 Church law did not allow divorce and annulment wasn’t an
 Henry has parliament change the law, divorces then marries Ann
Boleyn and has himself made head of the English church
 Ann beheaded after giving birth to Elizabeth. Next wife Jane
has son Edward and dies. Henry married 3 more times.
 Edward King at 9 reigned 6 years, then Catherine who returned
to Catholic church and executed Protestants
Luther Leads the Reformation
 Queen Elizabeth I
 1558 Catherine dies and Elizabeth becomes queen
 She restores Protestantism and establishes the Anglican church
 Priests can marry and sermons were in English
 Catholics try to overthrow her and she faces other threats
 A shortage of money also challenged her rule
The Reformation Continues
 John Calvin (Calvinism)
 French follower of Luther
 More personal faith and congregants have control over church
 Institutes of Christian Religion
 Men and women sinful by nature and God chooses who can be
saved (predestination)
 Theocracy – government controlled by religious leaders
The Reformation Continues
 Other Protestant Reformers
 Protestants – Bible is the source of all religious truth
 Anabaptists – baptized a 2nd time when old enough to decide to
be Christians
 Separation of church and state
 Women had influence, but church duties were limited as they
were to serve in the home
The Reformation Continues
 The Catholic Reformation (Counter Reformation)
 Millions still remained Catholic and a movement occurred to
keep Catholics loyal
 Ignatius of Loyola and Popes Paul III and Paul IV were
 Jesuits – founded schools, converted non-Christians to
Catholicism and stop the spread of Protestantism
 Council of Trent
 Church interpretation of the Bible was final
 Needed faith and good works for salvation. (Luther = faith alone)
 Bible and Church tradition were equally powerful
 Indulgences had to be appropriate but were still valid
The Reformation Continues
 Book burnings occur of certain books selected by the
Catholic church
Reformation set the stage for the modern world
Protestant churches and denominations flourished
Catholic church became more unified
Education became more important with schools, colleges and
universities being founded
Status of women in church and society did not change
Monarchs gain power and nation states arise
Set the framework for the Enlightenment in late 1700s
(Chapter 22)