The Renaissance, Reformation, and Exploration

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Transcript The Renaissance, Reformation, and Exploration

The Renaissance
Primavera by Botticelli
The Italian Renaissance
Renaissance means
Began in Italy
Lasted from 13501600
The classics from
Greece and Rome
were revived
Spread throughout
Palazzo Della Signoria in Florence, Italy
Father: Petrarch
Interest in capabilities
of the individual
Focus on study of
Classical Culture,
Men: Well rounded
“Renaissance Man”
 Women: courteous,
graceful, attractive
Printing Press
Humanism enhanced
by printing
 Gutenberg’s Moveable
Type Press first printed
the Bible in 1454
Originally invented in
By 1500, 10 million
printed books
circulating Europe
Characteristics of the Italian
Urban society
Recovery from the
disasters of the 14th
Siena, Italy
Piazza del Campo
Black Death
Political disorder
Economic recession
New view of human
beings and individual
The Italian States
During the Middle Ages,
Italy had failed to develop
as a monarchy
Lack of single ruler made
it possible for a number of
city-states in northern and
central Italy to remain
Prospered from trade
Exchanged good with the
Byzantine and Islamic
civilizations, England, and
the Netherlands
Obtained silks, sugar, and
spices to take back to Italy
The Italian States: Milan
14th century-Visconti
family established
themselves as dukes of
Milan and extend power
all over Lombardy
 Last Visconti dies in 1447
 Francesco Sforza
(condottiere-leader of a
band of mercenaries)
conquers Milan and
becomes duke
 Built a strong, centralized
 Efficient tax system
Duomo in Milan, Italy
The Italian States: Venice
San Marco in Venice, Italy
Grown wealthy from
Small group of merchantaristocrats ran the
government on behalf of
their own interests
Trade empire brought
enormous revenues
Became an international
The Italian States: Florence
Dominated the region of
In 1434, Cosimo de’
Medici took control of the
They were wool traders
and bankers
The Medici kept the
republic form of
government, but ran it
behind the scenes
 Cosimo and Lorenzo put
supporters in offices to
carry out their policies
 Florence was the cultural
center of Italy
Duomo in Florence, Italy
Machiavelli and the New Statecraft
Wrote The Prince
Concerned with political power
and how to get it and keep it
Rejected the Middle Ages view
that rulers ought to behave on
Christian moral values
Must be based on an
understanding of human
A ruler acts on behalf of the
state, therefore, he should let
his own conscience sleep
Had a profound influence on
political leaders in the Western
The Making of Renaissance Society:
Around 3 % of the
Held political posts and
advised Kings
Castiglione describe the
perfect noble in his work
Isabella d’Este
The Book of the Courtier
Born, not made
Work to be a warrior
Have a classical education
Standards of conduct
Serve his prince in an
effective and honest way
Pietro Medici
The Making of Renaissance Society:
Peasants and Townspeople
About 90% of the
Serfdom declined and
more peasants were
becoming free
Townspeople were
divided also
Patricians-wealthy traders,
industry, and bankingdominated communities
artisans, guild membersmiddle class
pitiful wages, 30-40% pop.
Moneychanger and his Wife by Quentin Massys
The Making of Renaissance Society:
Family and Marriage
The Marriage of the Virgin by Raphael
Parents carefully arranged
marriages to strengthen
business or family ties
Details were worked out when
children were 2 or 3 years old
Legally binding
Dowry-sum of the money
given by the wife’s family to
the husband upon marriage
Father was the center of family
Children became adults when
they were legally freed
Mother’s role was to supervise
the household
Vernacular Language
spoken in their own
Geoffrey Chaucer’s
Canterbury Tales
Dante’s Divine Comedy
Began to compete with
Eventually replaced it
Canterbury Tales in the
Here bygynneth the Book
of the tales of Caunterbury
1: Whan that aprill with his shoures soote
2: The droghte of march hath perced to the
3: And bathed every veyne in swich licour
4: Of which vertu engendred is the flour;
5: Whan zephirus eek with his sweete breeth
6: Inspired hath in every holt and heeth
7: Tendre croppes, and the yonge sonne
8: Hath in the ram his halve cours yronne,
9: And smale foweles maken melodye,
10: That slepen al the nyght with open ye
11: (so priketh hem nature in hir corages);
12: Thanne longen folk to goon on pilgrimages,
13: And palmeres for to seken straunge
14: To ferne halwes, kowthe in sondry londes;
15: And specially from every shires ende
16: Of engelond to caunterbury they wende,
17: The hooly blisful martir for to seke,
Here Begins the Book of the Tales of
When April with his showers sweet with fruit
The drought of March has pierced unto the root
And bathed each vein with liquor that has power
To generate therein and sire the flower;
When Zephyr also has, with his sweet breath,
Quickened again, in every holt and heath,
The tender shoots and buds, and the young sun
Into the Ram one half his course has run,
And many little birds make melody
That sleep through all the night with open eye
(So Nature pricks them on to ramp and rage)Then do folk long to go on pilgrimage,
And palmers to go seeking out strange strands,
To distant shrines well known in sundry lands.
And specially from every shire's end
Of England they to Canterbury wend,
The holy blessed martyr there to seek
Characteristics of Renaissance Art
Influenced by
classical Greece and
 Emphasized realism,
detail, perfection
 Religion got a lifelike
The Artistic Renaissance in Italy
Branccaci Tributo fresco by Masaccio
Self Portrait by Leonardo da Vinci
Dome of the duomo in Florence by Brunelleschi
The Artistic Renaissance in Italy
Fresco-painting done on
fresh, wet plaster with
water based paints
Figures had the illusion of
being three dimensional
Two major achievements
Moverment and human
Architects were inspired
by the buildings of
ancient Rome (San
School of Athens by Raphael
Interior of
San Lorenzo by
The Artistic Renaissance in Italy
Mastery of techniques
for a realistic
portrayal of the world
Da Vinci dissected
human bodies to study
Move from painting
realistic forms to ideal
Glorified the human
Rome, Italy
Ospedale degli Innocenti
Designed by Brunelleschi
Florence, Italy
The Artistic Renaissance in Italy
The Last
Sistine Chapel
Rome, Italy
The Artistic Renaissance in Italy
The Sistine Chapel Ceiling by Micelangelo
The Scientific Revolution
Built upon writings of Greeks
and Romans (okay, we get it,
they REALLY liked those
Developed scientific method
Challenged medieval
superstition and acceptance
of Aristotle’s theories
Reduced importance of
humans in universal scheme
(heliocentric orbit)
Considerable religious
Improved health and ability
to control environment
Firm foundation for modern
scientific advances
Blood, not air, circulates in the veins
Planets follow elliptical orbit (not circular)
astronomer and physicist, improved telescope,
proved Copernicus’
philosopher, popularized the scientific method
(some people think he’s actually Shakespeare)
Disected human bodies, founded anatomy
Francis Bacon:
Sun is in center of solar system and earth is
one of several planets orbiting the sun
discovered law of gases, fundamental to
modern chemistry
invented calculus, laws of motion, laws of