Lesson 8, 9, 10 & 11
Lesson 8, 9, 10 & 11
Mrs Vopp is testing wc
Test appropriate for the component
Warm up / Cool down
The Principle of Moderation
• Training load needs to be balance!
• Too much will lead to burn out! (Physical
and mental fatigue and over use injuries).
• Too little with not gain the body any
The Principle of Reversibility
• Fitness cannot be stored for the future
• Any adaptations to training will be
reversed once you stop.
• If you don’t use it you loose it!
• Atrophy is a decrease in muscle size.
• Lost in a third of the time it took to gain!
• Aerobic adaptations reverse quicker that
The Principle of Specificity
• Before attempting specific training for an
activity a general level of fitness should be
• Need to link the training adaptations to the
sport or activity. Energy systems, muscles
and movements used.
• Specificity is individual each person has
different rate of adaptation.
The Principle of Variance
• ‘Variety is the spice of life’
• Prevent boredom by varying the training
• Helps motivation
• By varying the workloads you will prevent
overuse injuries and chronic fatigue
The Principle of Overload
• The body will become fitter if it is made to
• The body adapts to the stress and your
level of fitness improves.
How Can we Overload?
Frequency = Increase the number of times you
Intensity = Increase how hard you work/ run
faster, lift heavier weights, reduce recovery time
Time = Increase the duration of the activity
Type = Aerobic or anaerobic
F. I. T.T
Copy pg 396 fig 17.3 training zone adaptation graphs.
Principle Of Progression
• Overload should be made progressively
• Don’t increase overload until adaptations
have been made.
• Think moderation in your overload to
prevent injury and overtraining.
The Principle of Periodisation
Phasing training throughout a year or a
specified length of time is called
Periodisation = This is breaking a training
programme into periods of time or phases, each
with a specific aim.
This allows the athlete to ‘peak’ for a certain
Simplest form of periodisation is where the year is
divided into three sections
• Pre- Season
• Competitive Season
• Off Season
Developments in training have meant that training
is now planned in the form of macro-cycles, esocycles and micro cycles.
A macro-cycle = this is the whole training
programme. (Often a year). Long term
A meso-cycle = a phase of training,
between 4 – 16 weeks. There can be up
to 6 phases. Each with a specific aim.
Medium term goals
A micro-cycle = a typical training week.
This is broken down into training units.
Short term goals
This represents the whole training programme.
Usual time = one year.
The athlete will target a specific aim:
Achieve a certain time or distance
Make the first team.
This is a phase of training, 4 to 16 weeks.
There can be six phases in a macro-cycle
1. Phase 1 = general fitness work.
2. Phase 2 = Specific training for sport, speed, strength,
3. Phase 3 = Start of competitive season. General training
reduced and replaced with competition work.
4. Phase 4 = If the season is long – training and competition
is reduced to allow for recovery
5. Phase 5 = This is the culmination of competition. County
championships or Cup Final
6. Phase 6 = Recovery phase
Some athletes prefer to break down into pre-season,
competitive season and off season as their meso-cycle
•This is the period leading up to competition
•Training becomes a lot more specific and intense
•Work loads are progressively increased to cope
with the demands of the activity
•Looking at more demanding interval work
•Power / plyometrics
•The aim in this phase is to maintain the level of
fitness achieved in the pre-season phase
•Athletes may need to peak for a specific competition
•Usually maximum strength training is reduced
•But intense interval training is still needed
Work on general conditioning – aerobic work
Opportunity to work on weaker areas of their
Variety is important to maintain interest
A training week, divided into training units.
A unit is a period of training with a specific aim.
Example: an interval session.
A training session can contain more than one unit.
Unit 1 = mobility work
Unit 2 = skills work
Unit 3 = aerobic work.
Task - Plan your own Training Programme
• Testing enables individuals to monitor
whether training load is correct, if/when it
• Planning a training program should match
the individuals capacity (test result) with
that of the requirements demanded of their
Fill in tests you may find pg 402 useful
Bodies Response to Exercise
• Two types of response:
1. Short Term physiological response that
occurs during exercise, with the body
returning to normal after recovery.
2. Long term physiological adaptation to
training. This is a chronic response. The
changes will be specific to the type of
Heart Rate and Stroke Volume
• Heart Rate and stroke volume will
increase during exercise proportional to
the intensity of the exercise. After exercise
they return to resting levels.
• The effect of training on the heart is to
increase the size of the stroke volume
therefore allowing the resting heart rate to
drop significantly. This is an adaptation to
Specific Factors For a Training
1. The Individual
2. The Activity
3. The Energy Systems
• Identify the fitness components needed for
• Analyse the joints and muscle groups
used and the type of contraction.
• Reproduce the movement patterns used in
The Energy Systems
• Identify the energy systems used during
• Assess the contribution of the three
• Manipulate the intensity and duration of
your work to reflect this.
A Warm up is very important as it prepares the body for exercise in the
following ways, which reduces risk of injury:
• increase in body temperature, which warms muscles and enables better
• increase in heart rate and cardiac output
• increase in volume of air breathed per minute
• capillaries dilate with oxygenated blood
• slightly better blood flow due to blood viscosity lower at higher
• increase in blood pressure forces blood more quickly through arteries
• stretching of relevant joints and muscle prepares them for full range
• secretion of adrenaline increases the metabolic rate (normal rate at
which energy is produced by the whole body)
• releases Synovial fluid to lubricate joints
• Pulse-raising activities: aerobic sub maximal
(jog, side step, skip)
• Mobility: joint rotation to lubricate
•Stretching: active muscles used should be stretched
keeps capillaries open longer
keeps oxygenated blood flowing to muscles
assists purging of oxygen debt
flushes out lactic acid and helps oxidise lactic acid
prevents muscle soreness - DOMS
prevents blood pooling (blood will remain in limbs if muscle action is stopped
by keeping muscles active until the need for oxygenated blood has reduced
active muscles will activate the muscle pump for venous return of blood to the
stretches during cool-down can increase flexibility of joints
helps lower levels of adrenaline
• An active cool down should follow any activity as it
helps speed up recovery process
• low intensity gross motor activity examples
jogging / light swim
• full range stretches
Due After Christmas
Revise as you go questions