Proteins and Enzymes - Downtown Magnets High School

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Transcript Proteins and Enzymes - Downtown Magnets High School

Macromolecules Part Two:
Proteins
Biology Standard 1 b
Organic Group: Proteins
• Compounds that contain N, C,
H, and O.
• Made of polymers of amino
acids.
Amino Acid Structure
• 20 diff. amino acids exist
• ‘R’ Side Chain differs on all of them
Case Study: Hemoglobin
• Iron-containing protein found in red
blood cells.
• Transports oxygen to body
Peptides
• Peptide bonds: join amino acids
together.
• Dehydration synthesis (forms
proteins)
Eat Your
Proteins!
Eat Your
Polypeptides
!
Enzymes
• Proteins!
• Speed up rates of
reactions w/out
being altered
(changed).
• Lower activation
energies of
reactions
Lower activation
energies of
reactions
How Do They Work?
• Each enzyme: a very
specific active site in
which a substrate can
bind.
• When a substrate
binds  reaction
occurs.
• Enzyme remains
unchanged in reaction.
• Competitive
inhibitors: interfere w/
process.
Case Study: Lactase
• Enzyme that helps break down sugar lactose
into galactose and glucose.
• Lactose intolerant: you don’t make lactase.
Mutation of Chromosome 2.
• Cramps, bloating, flatulence