PowerPoint - Lisbon Driver`s Education

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Transcript PowerPoint - Lisbon Driver`s Education

State of New Hampshire
Departments of Education
and Safety
Division of Program
Support
Driver Risk Prevention Curriculum
Drinking, Drugs & Driving
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
Objective
Understand the
physiological and
psychological effects of
alcohol and other drugs
on the driving task
An alcohol related crash
occurs every two minutes
in the US
Annually thousands are injured
and more than 50 are killed on
New Hampshire roadways. The
reason; drivers under the
influence of alcohol and other
drugs!
In fact,
Impaired drivers kill and injure
more people than all other
violent criminals put together.
SOURCE: ODOT TSD
Driving while impaired whether by
alcohol, by other drugs, or by
alcohol and one or more other
drugs combined, is a major health
and safety problem
Alcohol is the most widely used drug
and the one most often linked to
motor vehicle crashes.
So if you drive…
what about drinking?
Alcohol Affects the Body
BRAIN
Impaired brain function
LUNGS. Infection; breathing can stop
HEART. Irregular heart beat
LIVER.
Alcoholic hepatitis & cirrhosis
STOMACH. Stomach irritation, peptic
ulcers, bleeding lesions and cancer
INTESTINES & PANCREAS. Intestinal
tract & colon damage, inflammation,
ulcers, inflamed pancreas and cancer
BONES & MUSCLES Weaker and thinner
bones (osteoporosis); weaker and
uncoordinated muscles
Source: VA ABC Department
Alcohol Affects the Body
• Alcohol is a drug which depresses
the central nervous system.
• As a depressant, alcohol slows the
activity of the brain and the spinal
cord.
• Unlike most food, alcohol does not
have to be digested. Once
swallowed, it is absorbed directly
into the blood stream through the
walls of the stomach and small
intestine within one to two minutes.
• However, if there is food in the
stomach, this absorption process
may be slowed.
• Once in the bloodstream, the alcohol
is distributed to all parts of the body,
including the brain and liver.
Source: VA ABC Department
Myths & Facts
Myth: I’ll know when I’m too drunk to drive
Fact: Your driving skills can be seriously compromised even when
your behavior is not obviously “drunk”.
Myth: “I only had one drink.”
Fact: One drink can be one too many, since alcohol absorption starts
immediately. Several factors such as strength of drink, rate of
consumption, body size/weight, food, gender and drug use can affect
the outcome of even one drink.
Myth: “Black coffee and fresh air will sober me up.”
Fact: All the age-old remedies – black coffee, cold showers, fresh air
and exercise – are useless. Only time will sober you up.
Progression of
Mental Development
SEQUENCE OF GROWTH
A – Vital Functions
Heart, Lungs
B – Muscle Control
Fine Motor Control
C – Higher Learning Center
Judgment & Reasoning
C
A
B
Progression of Alcohols
Sedative Effects
C
A
B
SEQUENCE OF EFFECTS
C – Higher Learning Center
Judgment & Reasoning
B – Muscle Control
Fine Motor Control
A – Vital Functions
Heart, Lungs
Immediate Effects of Alcohol
BAC LEVEL*
Decision Making
Release of Inhibitions
Reflexes
Coordination/Motor Ability
Confusion/Disorientation
Stupor
Coma
Death
.03-.04
.04
.05-.10
.10
.15
.20-.30
.30-.40
.40 or more
* Effect begins at this BAC Rate and continues to deteriorate as BAC rises
Alcohol Affects the Body
As the amount of alcohol in the blood
increases, several things happen to the
body
• Vision becomes impaired
• Depth perception becomes distorted and
the pupils of the eyes react more slowly to
variations in light
• Coordination deteriorates
• Eyes can become fixated (stare)
• Because vision is distorted, scanning and
orderly visual searching are reduced
• The ability to solve problems is reduced
and the ability to recall past events or
learned knowledge is diminished
• The mind simply cannot manage to put it
all together and, as a result, the person
may exhibit poor judgment
• Inhibitions (persons inner voice that
restrains or holds back impulsive
behaviors) are reduced
• Euphoric feelings can cause drivers to
take risks they normally wouldn’t
Alcohol Affects Ones Vision
• Dynamic vision, the ability to following moving objects with the eyes,
is affected by alcohol
• Drivers have difficulty tracking other vehicles, bicyclists and
pedestrians
• Judging speed changes of other vehicles is adversely affected with
low doses of alcohol
• Less use of the field of vision causing drivers to concentrate on the
center of the path of travel and failing to see important events to the
sides
• Drivers have difficulty adjusting to changing light conditions,
especially at night; resulting in decreased ability to see pedestrians
• Target areas become blurry
• Scanning becomes erratic
• When dazzled by sharp light it takes a longer time before being able
to see clearly again
Blood Alcohol Content
Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC)
(may also be referred to as BloodAlcohol Level) is a measure of the
amount of alcohol in a person’s blood
expressed as a percent by volume
As your BAC level rises, so does your
risk of being involved in a fatal crash.
Blood Alcohol Content
Law of the Land
AS OF JULY 2004, ALL U.S. STATES
HAVE .08 BAC LAWS
If an individual has a BAC of .08% BAC
(8/100 of 1% alcohol), this means that
there is 8/10 of a drop of alcohol for every
1000 drops of blood in a person’s body.
Blood Alcohol Content
BAC can be determined by testing a
person's blood, breath, urine, or saliva.
Testing the breath is the quickest, least
complicated and most frequently used
test to determine BAC.
Factors Influencing BAC Levels
• Weight
• Time Spent Drinking
• Gender
• Food
• Alcohol Content
• Size of Drink
Ethyl Alcohol Content Varies
• 12 oz. Regular Beer
• 1 oz 80o Whiskey
• 12 oz. Cooler
BREEZER
• 2 oz Margarita
1.5 oz tequila(80o), .5 oz triple sec (60o)
Source: AAA
OR
COOLER
Crunching the Numbers
WHISKEY
BEER
@ 80o
@ 4.5%
1 oz.
0.40
0.40 ounces of ethyl alcohol
12 oz.
0.045
0.54 ounces of ethyl alcohol
COOLER
MARGARITA
@ 5.0%
12 oz.
0.05
0.60 ounces of ethyl alcohol
Tequila (80o) Triple sec (60o)
BREEZER
OR
COOLER
1.5 oz.
0.4
0.6 +
0.5 oz.
0.3
0.15 = 0.75
ounces of ethyl alcohol
MARGARITA =
COOLER
=
BEER
=
Source: AAA
88% more alcohol… than a shot of whiskey.
50% more alcohol… than a shot of whiskey.
35% more alcohol… than a shot of whiskey.
Amount of Alcohol in Drinks Vary
• Know that not all drinks contain equal
amounts of alcohol
• The alcoholic content of any one drink
depends upon both the type and amount of
liquor it contains
• Some mixed drinks contain only one ounce
of liquor others contain two ounces of
liquor
• Drinks mixed by a host or hostess at a
private party can be even stronger
• Beer has the same effect as straight scotch
How Much is Too Much?
Weight
Female
200
195
180
170
160
150
130
120
110
BAC
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.03
Ounces of BAC Ounces of BAC Ounces of
Light Beer
Light Beer
Light Beer
18 oz.
17 oz.
16 oz.
15 oz.
14 oz.
13 oz.
11 oz.
10 oz.
8 oz.
0.05
0.05
0.05
0.05
0.05
0.05
0.05
0.05
0.05
30 oz.
29 oz.
27 oz.
25 oz.
22 oz.
21 oz.
20 oz.
18 oz.
17 oz.
0.07
0.07
0.07
0.07
0.07
0.07
0.07
0.07
0.07
41 oz.
39 oz.
37 oz.
34 oz.
32 oz.
29 oz.
28 oz.
26 oz.
23 oz.
Basic Assumption:
12 oz of Light Beer = 1 oz of 86 proof liquor (.43 oz per drink)
Under 21 years old Zero Tolerance
How Much is Too Much?
Weight
Male
BAC
190
180
170
160
150
140
130
120
110
100
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.03
Ounces of BAC Ounces of BAC Ounces of
Light Beer
Light Beer
Light Beer
21 oz.
20 oz.
19 oz.
18 oz.
17 oz.
16 oz.
15 oz.
14 oz.
13 oz.
11 oz.
0.05
0.05
0.05
0.05
0.05
0.05
0.05
0.05
0.05
0.05
34 oz.
33 oz.
32 oz.
30 oz.
29 oz.
27 oz.
25 oz.
22 oz.
21 oz.
20 oz.
0.07
0.07
0.07
0.07
0.07
0.07
0.07
0.07
0.07
0.07
50 oz.
46 oz.
44 oz.
41 oz.
39 oz.
37 oz.
34 oz.
32 oz.
29 oz.
28 oz.
Basic Assumption:
12 oz of Light Beer = 1 oz of 86 proof liquor (.43 oz per drink)
Under 21 years old Zero Tolerance
Elimination of Alcohol
PROCESS
Breath
Urine
Sweat
} 10%
LIVER 90%
TIME FACTORS
About 0.015 BAC Reduction Per Hour
Therefore:
BAC of 0.05 = 3.5 hours for removal
BAC of 0.07 = 5.0 hours for removal
BAC of 0.10 = 7.0 hours for removal
BAC of 0.15 = 10.0 hours for removal
Assumption: Adult male 150-180 lbs. with normal liver function
ELIMINATION RATE
BECOMES SOBER (.00) @ 1:00 pm
STARTS DRINKING (.00) @ 9:00 pm
BAC
.20
STOPS DRINKING (.15) @ 12:30 am
HITS PEAK BAC (.17) @ 1:00 am
.15
INTOXICATED LEGALLY (.08)
@ 7:00 am
.10
.05
IMPAIRED (.05) @ 9:00 am
.00
9 10
HRS 1
11
2
12
3
1
4
ABSORPTION
Source: AAA
2
5
3
6
4
7
5
8
6 7
9 10
8
11
9 10
12 13
ELIMINATION
11 12 1
14 15 16
Affects of Alcohol
on Driving
Risk of Crash Death Much
Greater Even at Low BAC
Levels (2.5% Increase Risk)
Vision
Attention
Perception
Reaction Time
Tracking, Steering
Information Processing
Coordination
Relative Risk of Death in a Crash for 1619 yr. Olds by BAC Level
BLOOD ALCOHOL
CONTENT
.015 - .049
.05 - .079
.08 - .099
.10 - .149
.15 AND GREATER
INCREASED RISK
OF DEATH
2.5%
9.0%
40.0%
90.0%
420.0%
STUDY INCLUDES COMPARISON OF SINGLE VEHICLE
COLLISIONS IN AGE GROUP
Don’t be Deluded
Drinking and Driving is…





Deceptive
Dangerous
Destructive
Disabling
Deadly
Zero Tolerance Law
Under 21
BAC above .02%
NHRSA 265 – A:2
Over 21
Under .08 but over .03 could still
result in a DWI conviction under the
laws of evidence.
NHRSA 265 – A:11
Legal Ramifications
In New Hampshire, Operating under the influence of drugs
or Liquor, First offense: Class B Misdemeanor, fine not
less than $500.00, must attend impaired driver intervention
program prior to getting license back, driver license
revoked for not less than 9 months to 2 years.
RSA 265-A:18
Aggravated OUI is Class A misdemeanor, Fine not less
than $750.00 mandatory sentence of not less than 10
consecutive days (3 county Jail, 7 MOP), License revoked
for 18 months – 2 years
Aggravated OUI with serious injury/death – class
B felony
Other Legal Ramifications
Implied Consent Law RSA 265 –A:4
Open Container Law RSA 265 – A:44
Unlawful Possession RSA 179:10
In NH you can be charged with Unlawful
Possession and intoxication if you are under 21 &
possess any amount of alcohol, even if you have
consumed none of it, even if it is in a sealed
container.
You can be charged with this if you are under 21
and consume any amount of alcohol, . 02%
Unlawful Possession is punishable by a fine up to
$300 for a first offense.
So if you’re going
to drive…
And if you’re
going to drink…
OTHER DRUGS
• CATEGORIES
• Nonprescription & Over the Counter
• Prescription
• Illegal or Illicit
• TYPES
• Hallucinogens
• Stimulants
• Depressants
Stimulants
Drugs that speed up the
central nervous system
• Nicotine
• Amphetamines
• Caffeine
Depressants
Drugs that slow the
central nervous system
•
•
•
•
•
Alcohol
Barbiturates
Sleeping pills
Tranquilizers
Narcotics ─ heroin,
codeine, morphine
Effects of
Stimulants
• Gives user a feeling of
high energy and
alertness leading to
increased risk taking
• Sometimes used to try
and stay awake when
tired
• Reduced reaction time,
impair motor skills,
dims vision
• Aggressive and
overconfident
Effects of
Depressants:
• Become very relaxed
• Lose inhibitions
• Irritability
• Confusion
• Drowsy
• Dizzy
• Poor hand-eye
coordination
Hallucinogens
Unpredictable mind altering drugs
that alter personality. Examples
include:
• Cannabis (Marijuana, Hashish)
• LSD
• PCP – angel dust
• Psilocybin
• Volatile (household inhalants )
Marijuana and Driving
• Marijuana hinders the user's short-term
memory and he/she may have trouble
handling complex tasks
• Because of the drug’s effects on
perceptions and reaction time, users
could be involved in automobile crashes
• Marijuana causes acute effects on
impairment for up to 4-6 hours following
typical recreational use
Marijuana and Driving
Following cannabis use critical skills
for safe operation of motor vehicles
include:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Measures of coordination
Tracking
Vigilance
Memory
Learning
Attention
Perception & Information processing
Decision making
Distance judgment
Research has shown that marijuana
effects may continue up to 24 hours
after use
Physical Effects of Hallucinogens
Can cause panic or terror
Distort sense of direction,
distance, and time
Altered depth
perception
Drowsiness
Impairs judgment and
decision-making
Impaired vision
Fragmented thought
process
Impaired spatial
relationships and
passage of time
Coordination
(acceleration and braking
control)
OTHER DRUGS: Methamphetamine
Methamphetamine is a powerfully
addictive and violent drug
Commonly known as:
Meth
Speed
Chalk
Crystal
Crank
Glass
Ice
Methamphetamine
Abusers suffer paranoia, auditory hallucinations,
mood disturbances, and delusions (for example, the
sensation of insects creeping on the skin)
The paranoia can result in homicidal as well as
suicidal thoughts
Impairment causes distraction, disorientation, motor
excitation, hyperactive reflexes, general cognitive
impairment, or withdrawal and fatigue
Methamphetamine may cause dizziness, blurred
vision, or restlessness, and it may hide the symptoms
of extreme tiredness
Methamphetamine
In studies of drive-off-the-road type crashes, high
speed, failing to stop, diminished divided attention,
inattentive driving, impatience, and high risk driving
have been reported.
Significant impairment of driving performance would
also be expected during drug withdrawal.
Driving and driver behaviors included speeding, lane
travel, erratic driving, accidents, nervousness, rapid
and non-stop speech, unintelligible speech,
disorientation, agitation, staggering and awkward
movements, irrational or violent behavior, and
unconsciousness.
Over-The-Counter (OTC)
Examples include:
•
Aspirin or other pain relievers
•
Cold and allergy remedies
•
Arthritis and back pain medications
Physical effects of OTC drugs:
•
Drowsiness, dizziness, slowed reaction
time and poor judgment
•
Always read the labels and know the
effects that can occur!
Combining Drugs
 Combining drugs, or combining
other drugs with alcohol will
increase the effects of both.
 This combination is called the
synergistic effect and is extremely
dangerous.
+
=
Dangerous
Synergistic Effect!
Decision Making Filters

Does it Solve the Problem?

What do I have to Gain; to Lose?

Will it pass the test of time (is the solution lasting)?

Is it right (legal, ethical, moral)?

How will this choice affect (me, others, and/or property)?

Am I proud of my choice (willing to share my choice with:)
•
Family?
•
Friends?
•
Work, profession, school associates?
•
Community and church members, neighbors?

Willing to have it as Front Page Headlines?

Does it make the face in the mirror look good?
Its All About Decisions
Split Second
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