Effective Public Education

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Transcript Effective Public Education

Effective Public Education
1
Effective Public Education:
Objectives
• Understand role of public knowledge,
attitudes and practice in use of medicines
• Identify major drug use problems in your
community
• Identify components of public education
program
• Identify various channels that exist to
convey consumer education
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Patients Role
• Patient must believe “Something is wrong”
• Must decide that what is wrong is serious
enough to do something
• Choose where to seek help
– Self
– PHC center
– Hospital
– Private healer
– Private doctor
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Patients Role
• With prescription
must decide
whether to buy
medicines
• Decide whether
to take some or
all medicines
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Where Do Patients Get
Medicines?
Town
Clinics 2%
Drugstore 35%
Hospital 1%
Doctor 7%
MEDICINES
(n=1324)
Neighborhood
Store 40%
Neighbors and
Relative 5%
Household Stocks
and Free Clinics 8%
Neighborhood
Source: Hardon 1991
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Concept of Disease Etiology
• Different people have different concepts of
disease
• Possible causes could be:
– Bacteria, viruses
– Cold, gas, wind,
– Heat, cold
– Evil eye, bewitching
– Faith, immorality
– Different foods
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Concepts of Cure
• What is cure?
–Destroy bacteria
–Remove symptoms
–Take away visible lesions
–Control measured signs e.g. Blood
Pressure
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Concepts about Drugs
• Patients may value drugs according to:
– Mode of administration e.g. injections
– Packaging
– Speed of Action
– Cost
– Taste
– Color
– Source
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Effect of Promotion and
Marketing on Use of drugs
• Direct promotion to consumer of even
prescription drugs is common
• Advertisements usually promote brand
names, may be inaccurate or
misleading
• Consumers are very sensitive to some
advertising messages
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Social Marketing Components
4P’s
•
•
•
•
Price
Product
Promotion
Place
Design strategies based on target
audience perceptions wants and needs
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Health Belief Model
Based on:
• Perceived susceptibility
• Perceived severity
• Perceived benefits
• Perceived barriers
• Self-efficacy
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Global Public Education
Initiatives on Drug Use
• Health education about drugs
becoming more important
• Campaigns in Australia, Bolivia,
Kenya, Malawi, Mynmar, Sudan,
Philippines & USA
• Many different approaches
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Developing a Public Education
Strategy
• Public education cannot compensate
for a poor health system
• Informed consumers can act in their
own best interests
• Changing behavior is not easy and
requires understanding of beliefs and
knowledge of social and cultural context
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Six Steps towards Effective
Communication
Six Steps Toward Effective Communication
Step 1: Investigate
Step 2: Plan
Activities
Step 3: Develop
Materials
Step 6 : Evaluate and
Reassess Activities
Step 5: Implement
and Monitor Activities
Step 4 : Test and
Revise Materials
©1997 Kumarian Press excerpted from Managing Drug Supply, Management Sciences for Health and WHO
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Developing a Public Education
Strategy - Investigate
• What is already known
• What information is needed
– Target audience characteristics
– Communication networks
– Existing communication resources
• Generating data use both quantitative
and qualitative methods
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Developing a Public Education
Strategy - Plan
Include:
• Objectives
• Target audience
• Constraints and facilitating factors
• Approaches to be used
• Communication channels including media mix
• Collaborating institutions
• Monitoring and evaluation
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Developing a Public Education
Strategy - Develop
Communication Materials
• Base materials on
formative research
• Have clear
messages
• Use appropriate
language and
expressions
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Developing a Public Education
Strategy - Test and Revise Materials
• Test on target audience representatives to
ensure materials are understandable,
appropriate and attractive
• Check if people feel that the materials apply
to them
• Is there anything offensive or culturally
inappropriate?
• Based on the test how should the materials
be modified
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Developing a Public Education
Strategy - Implementation
• Prepare all materials
before starting
• Train staff
•
Arrange venues, staff,
and materials
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Developing a Public Education
Strategy - Monitor, Evaluate and
Revise
• Monitor:
– Are target audiences receiving materials and
messages?
– Are they learning messages?
– Is the program on schedule?
– Will any delays affect other activities
• Evaluate:
– Did the program work?
– What changes are needed?
– What lessons can be learned for future?
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Activity One
• Designing a Public Education
Program
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