Contemporary globalization

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Transcript Contemporary globalization

Chapter 2
Contemporary Globalization
#1: Force or process that involves
the entire world and results in
making something world-wide in
#2: Increasing
interconnectedness of different
parts of the world through
common processes of economic,
environmental, political, and
cultural change.
Has been underway since
inception of modern worldsystem in 1500s
1800s modern framework for
globalization developed
Global connections today differ in
four ways from past
Function at much greater speed
Operates on a much larger
The scope of global
connections is much broader
and has multiple dimensions
Interactions and
interdependencies among
numerous global actors have
created a new level of
complexity for the relationships
between places and regions
Contemporary Globalization
Modern Technology has created
quick movement of money,
materials, products, technology and
other economic assets
Globalization has had both positive
and negative repercussions:
localization: places might be
attractive because of resources, or it
might be suitable for new factories,
extract materials, sell them, etc.
heightened economic differences:
example, factories closing in the
United States and open in Mexico
due to cheaper labor.
Specialization on local level
Each place plays a distinctive
role based on its local assets
Economic Globalization
People are plugged in to a global
economy and culture. This produces a
world that is more uniform, integrated,
and independent.
 Only a few areas are still isolated/
 Subsistent areas
 Most areas interdependent
 Choice of crop in one country
based on demand in another
Commodity Chains
 Networks of labor and production
processes that originate in the
extraction or production of raw
materials and who end result is
delivery and consumption of the
finished commodity
 Network span countries and
Pg. 53 in textbook (Knox)
+ Economic Globalization
Historically people had difficulty
moving $ and goods from one
country to another, modern
technology has changed that
Led to creation of transnational
 Definition:
 Transnational corporations
conduct research, operates
factories, and sells products in
many countries, not just where
it’s headquarters are located.
TCs assess particular asset of a
place and correctly identify the
optimal location for each activity
 ex: extract raw materials
 Produce parts
 Manage operations
 Develop engineering systems
+ Transnational Corporations
Other examples:
Airbus, BP, Virgin Groups
2007 = 79,000 operating
Account for 11% of world’s GDP
1/3rd of exports
Globalization of economy has
heightened economic differences
among places
factories closed in U.S. and moved
to Mexico
Using India for call-centers
Global recession 2008
1st world-wide economic recession
Usually contained to nations or
Effects of recession varied
1st time global recession affected
U.S. homebuyer, banker in
U.K., sales clerk in Japan,
clothing maker in China,
construction work in Nigeria
All subject to falling
demand and lack of credit
Cultural Globalization
Globalization has important cultural
Previously cultural diffusion limited
to specific places and regions, no
longer the case
Consumer culture
“global” or uniform landscapes
 TV promotes globalization but
also can promote diversity
 Example: Sesame Street
 Shown in Japan with similar
characters, similar goals,
but stresses filial piety and
other Japanese
Not all peoples want to be
 Resistance
 Shut off from “globalizing”
 Conflict
 Political (Iran, Taliban,
Lack of uniqueness
All adds to an intensified global
connectedness and the beginnings of
the world an interdependent system
For some places globalization is a
central reality, others it is still a
marginal influence
There is no one experience
Heart of tensions is a marked
disillusionment with the West,
especially within traditional Islamic
In much of the world modernization
now means “westernization” or
 In peripheral countries only
select few enjoy western-style
 Gap between rich and poor
countries widening
 U.S. aid budget declining = bad
reputation for United States
 Conflict
 9/11 , Taliban
“ New Imperialism”
Imperialism of the United
States, the world’s only
The world regards U.S. as
“War on Terror”
Reinforced by:
military threats against
North Korea and Iran
Deployment on special
forces for rendition
Key Issues in a Globalizing World
The integrated global system has
increased awareness of a set of
common problems
Security issues
 Spread of weapons of mass
 Risk of accidents involving
 Instability of financial markets
 International terrorism
Disparity issues
 Core has consolidated
 Three major centers
 North America, European
Union, Japan
 Gap between wealthiest 5th of
population and poorest 5th has
increased threefold since 1965
 Resentment brewing
Environmental Issues
Human- environment interaction
Climate change
Environment degradation
Health issues
Increased travel = increased spread
of disease
Future Geographies
Globalization of capitalist world
system has been developing for at
least 500 years
Since WWII it has been accelerated
and dramatic
 Optimistic:
 Potential for technological
 Faster more effective
transportation and
 World governments?
 Pessimistic:
 Finite nature of resources
 Fragility of environment
 Pop growth too large
Middle road?
 Period of transition
 Soviet Union collapse
 9/11
 2008 Global financial crisis
 Increasing power/ influence of
China and India
 Shift in power in wealth from
West to East
 Increased conflict in Middle
 Resource pressure
 Lots of uncertainties
 Climate
 Arab- Israeli conflict
 energy