#### Multi-functional Packaged Antennas for Next

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Multi-functional Packaged Antennas for Next

Example on output voltage clipping
1
(a)
Closed loop gain of noninverting op amp
(b)
Solving, we have V0, max = 2.44 V
2
(c)
Clipping occurs at output voltage of 12 V or input voltage of 3 V
3
Slew-Rate Limitation
As an example, assume we have a waveform,
and we have to determine the
output of the op-amp having a slew
rate of 0.5 V/s
4
Full-Power Bandwidth
The o/p voltage is:
Taking derivative, we have:
The maximum rate of the o/p voltage change is then equal to the slew rate:
Thus the full-power bandwidth is:
Thus, and undistorted full-amplitude sinusoidal voltage is possible only for
frequencies less than fFP
5
DC Imperfections:
Input bias current:
Input offset current:
6
Model of op-amp with imperfections
Unequal current flowing in the terminals and unequal
voltages applied , as seen by an external source
applied.
Ideal op Amp
7
Problem:
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