Moral Development

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Transcript Moral Development

Moral Development and Moral
Universals
Mario Malički, MD, MA
Department of Medical Humanities
School of Medicine
University of Split
MORAL

principle of
conduct

good vs. bad

"reaction“
Virtue – moral excellence
A virtuous doctor is a good doctor
Morality has exceptions – the LAW does not
Human behavior – attempt to preserve
consistency between image of self and ones
actions
There is a difference between moral expert and
moral superiority
All human beings are born free and
equal in dignity and rights. They are
endowed with reason and conscience
and should act towards one another in
a spirit of brotherhood
Universal Declaration of Human Rights
Trolley problem
Phillipa Foot 1967
The New York Times; Illustration by Frank O’Connell
Lawrence Kohlberg's stages of moral development
Level 1 (Pre-Conventional) 3-7 y “I would cheat if I knew I wouldn't get
caught”
1. Obedience and punishment
“I’ll let you copy my work, if you give me
2. Self-interest orientation
something in return”
Level 2 (Conventional) highschool
3. Interpersonal conformity
“I wont do it, cause I wont her to like me”
4. Authority and social-order
“You cant do it as teacher said no”
Level 3 (Post-Conventional) college
“There may be an exception to the rule”
5. Social contract orientation
“You shouldn't lie as it violates the
6. Universal ethical principles
principle”
Hamlin – Social evaluation by preverbal infants
2007 – helpers and hinderes
Kanakogi 2013 - Rudimentary Sympathy in
Preverbal Infants
Warneken 2006-7 Altruistic helping in human
infants and young chimpanzees
Animal Cruelty and Bestiality
Dr. JohnMacdonald – triad:
• enuresis >5 years
• fire setting
• animal cruelty
“an alert to both the parents and the community
that the child is seriously troubled”
and “may well lead to adult aggressive antisocial
behavior”
• 1.8% in U.S. adults (40 000 sample - 2009)
• 2006 – a study showed that those who
engaged in bestiality were statistically more
likely to have been convicted of a personal
crime such as rape, sexual assault, robbery, or
assault than those who reported no history of
sex with animals (χ2 = 4.71,p= 0.03)
Frans De Waal – empathy in animals
Empathy
Definition of empathy
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~ 13 000 PUBMED
No single definition
51 instrument
Ecolution –
purpose?
Genetics – to take
care of children or
acquired trait?
What emapthy isn’t
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sympathy
pity
love
alrusim
Elements
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Mirroring of behavior
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Emotional contagion
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Perspective
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Emotional control
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Self vs other
Development of empathy
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Emotional contagion
Egocentric empathy – na
plač drugog djeteta dijete
traži utjehu za sebe
(odlazi svojoj majci)
Quasi - Egocentric
empathy– dijete dovodi
plačljivo drugo dijete
svojoj majci, ili mu daje
svoju igračku
Empathy / sympathy
Cruelty in animals
chimpanzee civil war - Kibale national park in Uganda
Tanzaina's Gombe Stream national park – split to two tribes
http://www.pbs.org - Hominidae Family Tree
Make love not war - Bonobos
Immanuel Kant -"Perpetual Peace" 1795
democracy, trade and an international
community are pacifying forces
Bruce Russett and John Oneal. 2001.
Triangulating Peace
Steven Pinker
The surprising decline of violence
Lawrence Kohlberg's stages of moral development
Level 1 (Pre-Conventional) 3-7 y “I would cheat if I knew I wouldn't get
caught”
1. Obedience and punishment
“I’ll let you copy my work, if you give me
2. Self-interest orientation
something in return”
Level 2 (Conventional) highschool
3. Interpersonal conformity
“I wont do it, cause I wont her to like me”
4. Authority and social-order
“You cant do it as teacher said no”
Level 3 (Post-Conventional) college
“There may be an exception to the rule”
5. Social contract orientation
“You shouldn't lie as it violates the
6. Universal ethical principles
principle”
Thorndike – 1930s
How much would you have to be paid to undergo
the following experiences?
1. to have one upper front tooth pulled out?
2. to have one little toe cutoff?
3. to eat a live earthworm six inches long?
4. to live the rest of your life on a farm in Kansas?
5. to choke a stray cat to death with your bare
hands?
Utilitarianism
revisited
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1. 74 000 $
2. 4,500 $
3. 100,000 $
4. 300 000 $
5. 164 000 $
Reason is weaker then situation
• David Hume 1738: “Reason is,
and ought only to be the slave of
the passions, and can never
pretend to any other office than
to serve and obey them.”
Stanely Milgram experiment
1961 -1963
The bystander effect
blog.lib.umn.edu
Disgust as Embodied Moral Judgment
• fart spray experisments (2005; 2008):
• legalization of marriage between first cousins
(Marriage), approval of sex between first
cousins (Sex), moral judgments of driving
rather than walking to work (Driving), and
approval of a studio’s decision to release a
morally controversial film (Film).
• abortion, pornography, premarital seks,
homosexual relationship or sex
Moral Universals/Foundations theory
– Johnathan Haidt
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Care/harm
Fairness/cheating – Reciprocity - The Golden Rule,
Liberty/oppression
Loyalty/betrayal - Ingroup community
Authority/subversion - hierarchy
Sanctity/degradation - Purity – sex, food,
23,684 subjects
Trolley problem
Phillipa Foot 1967
The New York Times; Illustration by Frank O’Connell
All human beings are born free and
equal in dignity and rights. They are
endowed with reason and conscience
and should act towards one another in
a spirit of brotherhood
Universal Declaration of Human Rights
Thank you for your attention!