Seedless Vascular Plants

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Transcript Seedless Vascular Plants

 Multicellular,
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Eukaryotes
Cell walls made of
cellulose
Waxy waterproof
cuticle
Autotrophs
Photosynthetic
with chlorophyll
 Vascular tissue
 Vascular Tissue- tubes that
carry food, water and carbon
dioxide throughout the plants
 Xylem-transport water
 Phloem-transports sugars
made in the leaves during
photosynthesis
 Some ancient plants are nonvascular
 Plants grow from the
Apical Meristem at
the root and stem tips
of the plant
 This is a zone of cells
undergoing mitosis
(cell division)
 Have no seeds have spores
–hard walled reproductive
structures
 Vascular & non-vascular
 Usually moist environments
Ex:
 Liverworts
 Hornworts
 Mosses
 Ferns
 Produce seeds
 Vascular
 See pg 568
 Gymnosperm
 Conifers
 Reproduce with
Cones
 Pollen cone
 Ovulate cone
 Seeds are in Cones
 Evergreen plants
 Needlelike leaves
 Pine, spruce, fir,
redwood
 Three Main Parts
 Roots
 Absorb water
 Stem
 Hold up leaves and
flowers
 Leaves
 Carry out photosynthesis
Functions
 Absorb water and
minerals from the
soil
 Anchor the plant
 Epidermis
 Root Hairs- increase
surface area, absorb
water
 Cortex- can store food
 Endodermis-surrounds
the vascular tissue
 Root cap-protection
 Apical Meristem- zone
of cell division
 Vascular tissue is in
Vascular Bundles
 Xylem-transport water
 Phloem-transport food
 Monocot Roots have
xylem and phloem in a
circle with a central pith
 Dicot roots have xylem
in the shape of a star at
the center
 Fibrous, Taproot, Prop
 Large underground roots store food
 beets, carrots,
 Adventitious roots- grow from the stem
Function
 Support leaves & flowers
 Provide communication
between leaves and roots
 Contains vascular tissue
 Xylem-water
 Phloem-food
Types
 Herbaceous stems- green
 Woody stems
Modified Stems can store food -this is an adaptation
 Celery
 Onion
 Bamboo shoots
 Sugar cane
 Vascular Tissue
 tube cells
 xylem and phloem
Monocot
 Monocot stems-the vascular
bundles scattered
throughout the stem.
 Dicot stems-the vascular
bundles form a circle in the
cortex
Dicot
P
Conifers and Angiosperm
trees grow in thickness
year to year.
 Secondary growth growing in thickness over
years.
X
1st year
P
 New xylem is added yearly
 Last years dead xylem
becomes a growth ring
2nd year
X
3rd year
 Over time the outer
portion of a stem
develops bark
 protects the phloem
(food) from damage
and insects
 Function
 Site of Photosynthesis
 Large, flat surface area to
trap light energy.
 Parts of a Leave
 Blade
 Petiole- stalk containing
vascular tissue
 Veins- vascular tissue
 Cuticle-waxy coating
 Monocot Leaves have
parallel veins
 Dicot leaves have a
branching network of
veins
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Epidermis – Outermost cell layer
Mesophyll- contains chloroplasts
Vein – contains xylem & phloem
Stomata-mouth like openings on the underside of a leaf
 allow the exchange of CO2 and O2 gases with the air
 water vapor can be lost through open stomata
 Guard cells
 Tendrils - ivy
 Pitcher Plant –carnivorous
plant
 Aloe Vera Cactus – water
storage
 Food storage- lettuce,
cabbage, spinach
 Alternation of Generations
 Ferns, mosses, conifers
 Evolutionary partners
with insects
 Trade food for pollination
 Reproductive structure of
plants
 Petal-colorful modified
leaves that attract
pollinators
 Pistil-female structure
 Ovary-egg producer
 Stamen-male structure
 Anther-produces pollen
which contains sperm
 Sepal – supports petal
 Complete flower-has all 4
organs
 Monocot flowers-
petals in multiples of 3
 Dicot Flowers- petals in
multiples of 4 or 5
ROOTS
Fibrous
Tap
Branched veins
LEAVES
Parallel veins
FLOWER
Flower parts in 5’s
 Pollination – When pollen
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falls on the stigma of the
pistil
The pollen grows a tube
through the style down to the
ovaries
Sperm is released from the
pollen
Fertilization - the joining of
the egg and sperm occurs
All the eggs are fertilized in
this manner
The Ovary matures into a
Fruit
 Seeds contain:
 Seed coat-protects the seed
 Embryo-small plant
 Endosperm (cotyledon)stored food
 Seeds can remain
dormant for years
 Cotyledon
 -the food storage
organ found in seeds
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The embryo
 Monocotyledon -
one embryo leaf
 Dicotyledon- two
embryo leaves
 Seed coat
 Seeds are spread
many ways:
 Wind
 Water
 Animals
 Propelled
 The beginning of
development of the
seed into a new plant
 Steps in germination
 Seed absorbs water to
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begin germination
Embryo does
respiration
First root appears
First leaves appears
Photosynthesis begins
 Plants respond to
 Light
 Water
 by growing towards both
 Plants release hormones –
chemical messengers for
these responses
 Annuals- plants that live for
one year
 Biennials-plants that live two
years
 Perennials-plants that live for
several years, producing
flowers and seed periodically
 Deciduous Trees - lose their
leaves in the fall