Flowering Plants

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Transcript Flowering Plants

Group 4: Flowering Plants
• Angiosperms (flowering
plants)
• Flower = reproductive
structure
– Attract animals to
help spread pollen
– Forms fruit to protect
and spread seeds
• Seeds
– Grow inside the fruit
– Inside the seed
1. Embryo
2. Endosperm (Food
supply)
Seed Dispersal
• Fruit brightly colored
– Attracts animals
• Seeds pass through
animals digestive system
• Seeds pooped in a new
area to grow
Fruit seeds in fox poop
Angiosperm Groups
• 2 groups: Based on
seed type
• Cotyledon:
embryonic leaf
• Two Categories:
– Monocots:
embryo with 1
seed leaf
– Dicots: embryo
with 2 seed
leaves
Monocots vs. Dicots
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Apple Tree: Monocot or Dicot?
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3
1
Net-like
veins
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5
Monocot or Dicot?
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3
1
4
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5
Monocot or Dicot?
Monocot or Dicot?
Monocot or Dicot?
Veins run
parallel
Monocot or Dicot?
Veins run
parallel
Monocot or Dicot?
Veins
branch
outward
Angiosperm Life
Spans
• Three Life Span Types:
• 1) Annuals
– Seed grows…
– Produce flowers & seeds…
– Die
• 2) Biennials
– 1st year:
• Seed grows and stores food
– 2nd year:
• grows more…
• makes flowers & seeds…
• dies
• 3) Perennials
– Live for more than 2 years
– May take decades to grow
fruit
Flowers
petals
sepals
• Reproductive
structure of
angiosperms
• Sepals
– outer ring of leaves
– protection
• Petals
– Inner ring of leaves
– Brightly colored to
attract pollinators
• Male and female
organs found inside
Tulip Pistil and Stamen
female
male
Lily Pistil and Stamen
female
male
Pistil and Stamen
female
male
Pistil and Stamen
female
male
Flowers
• Stamen (male)
– Anther: tip of
stamen, produces
pollen (sperm)
• Carpel/Pistil
(female)
– Inner most part
– Ovary: within the
base
• Contains eggs
• Grows into fruit when
fertilized
– Stigma: sticky tip,
collects pollen
Self-Pollination
(pollen fertilizes it’s own egg/eggs)
...
Cross-Pollination
(pollen of one, fertilizes egg of another
flower)
.
..
Angiosperm Life Cycle
1. Pollen sticks to animal (pollinator) or is released into wind.
1. Pollen sticks to animal (pollinator) or is released into wind.
2. Animal (pollinator) finds new flower to feed on & pollen
grains land on the stigma = pollination
3. Pollen tube grows towards the ovary and 2 sperm nuclei
transfer down into the ovule
..
Let’s
egg
zoom in
4. Angiosperms go through the process of double fertilization.
• 1 sperm fuse with the egg = zygote
• 1 sperm fuse with the 2 polar nuclei = triploid (3n) endosperm
Double
Fertilization
Zygote
Endosperm
(3n)
5. Each ovule becomes a seed.
Endosperm
Seed Coat
Embryo
6. The surrounding ovary grows into a fruit.
7. Flower dries up and fruit falls to ground.
8. Animals eat fruit….seeds come out the other end…
9. Seeds get dispersed.
10. Seed germinates (sporophyte), and the cycle starts over.
Ground
Dominant
Phase?
Plant type
Gametophyte
Sporophyte
Moss
More familiar, carpet-like
plant that produces
specialized gametes
XX- Archegonium
XY – Antheridium
Stalk with cup at tip, which
is where spores are
produced.
GAMETOPHYTE
Fern
Haploid plant body is size
of a finger nail, produces
both male and female
parts
More familiar, leafy plant
with clusters of spore
producing sacs (sori)
SPOROPHYTE
Conifer
(Gymnosperm)
Male gametophytes are
pollen grains sperm
Female gametophytes are
microscopic eggs
More familiar - like pine
trees, produces male and
female cones that produce
spores
SPOROPHYTE
Flowers
(Angiosperm)
Pollen grains are male
gametophytes  2
haploid cells = pollen tube
+ sperm
Female gametophyte in
ovule  egg + 2 polar
More familiar - apple tree,
SPOROPHYTE
peach tree, zucchini,
berries, etc. Contain flowers
that produce male and
female spores
Dominant
Phase?
Plant type
Gametophyte
Sporophyte
Moss
Stalk with cup at tip,
which is where spores are
produced.
More familiar, carpet-like
plant that produces
specialized gametes
XX
- Archegonium
XY - Antheridium
Fern
More familiar, leafy plant
with clusters of spore
producing sacs (sori)
Haploid plant body is size of SPOROPHYTE
a finger nail, produces both
male and female parts
Conifer
(Gymnosperm)
More familiar - like pine
trees, produces male and
female cones that
produce spores
Male gametophytes are
pollen grains sperm
Female gametophytes are
microscopic eggs
Flowers
(Angiosperm)
Pollen grains are male
gametophytes  2
haploid cells = pollen tube
+ sperm
Female gametophyte in
ovule  egg + 2 polar
GAMETOPHYTE
SPOROPHYTE
SPOROPHYTE
More familiar - apple tree,
peach tree, zucchini,
berries, etc. Contain flowers
that produce male and
female spores